Functions of Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate Chains in Brain Development

@article{Purushothaman2007FunctionsOC,
  title={Functions of Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate Chains in Brain Development},
  author={Anurag Purushothaman and Junko Fukuda and Shuji Mizumoto and Gerdy B. ten Dam and Toin H. van Kuppevelt and Hiroshi Kitagawa and Tadahisa Mikami and Kazuyuki Sugahara},
  journal={Journal of Biological Chemistry},
  year={2007},
  volume={282},
  pages={19442 - 19452}
}
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) have been implicated in the processes of neural development in the brain. In this study, we characterized developmentally regulated brain CS/DS chains using a single chain antibody, GD3G7, produced by the phage display technique. Evaluation of the specificity of GD3G7 toward various glycosaminoglycan preparations showed that this antibody specifically reacted with squid CS-E (rich in the GlcUAβ1–3GalNAc(4,6-O-sulfate) disaccharide unit E… 

Tables from this paper

Spatiotemporal expression of chondroitin sulfate sulfotransferases in the postnatal developing mouse cerebellum.
TLDR
The results suggest that the CS structures of various cerebellar neurons change during development and such changes of CS are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways.
Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate Plays Critical Roles in the Neuronal Migration in the Cerebral Cortex*
TLDR
Examination of the expression and function of three CS sulfotransferases in the developing neocortex revealed that specific oversulfated structures in CS chains play critical roles in the migration of neuronal precursors during cortical development.
Novel chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharide motifs as biomarkers: insights into their involvement in brain development.
  • K. Sugahara
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2015
TLDR
Seven novel hexasaccharide sequences, in addition to three previously reported sequences, were isolated after exhaustive digestion of the CS chains with the chondroitin lyase AC-I, which cannot act on galactosaminidic linkages adjacent to the D-units.
Highly sulfated hexasaccharide sequences isolated from chondroitin sulfate of shark fin cartilage: insights into the sugar sequences with bioactivities.
TLDR
Hexasaccharides containing two consecutive D-units or a B-unit will be useful for the structural and functional analyses of CS chains particularly in the neuroglycobiological fields.
Brain chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, from cerebral tissue to fine structure: extraction, preparation, and fully automated chip-electrospray mass spectrometric analysis.
TLDR
This chapter will present a strategy, which combines biochemical tools for brain CS/DS extraction, purification, and fractionation, with a modern analytical platform based on chip-nanoelectrospray multistage mass spectrometry (MS) able to provide information on the essential structural elements such as epimerization, chain length, sulfate content, and sulfation sites.
Development of a mouse monoclonal antibody against the chondroitin sulfate-protein linkage region derived from shark cartilage
TLDR
Monoclonal antibodies developed against linkage glycopeptides of shark cartilage CS proteoglycans suggest that the antibody recognizes the structure GalNAc(±6-O-sulfate)-GlcA-Gal- Gal-Xyl-Ser-(Pro, Gly, Glu), which will be a useful tool for investigating the significance of the linkage region in the biosynthesis and/or intracellular transport of different GAG chains.
Diabetes results in structural alteration of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate in the rat kidney: effects on the binding to extracellular matrix components.
TLDR
Insight is provided into the structure-function relationship of CS/DS in the kidney during diabetes and alterations of which could aggravate conditions such as diabetic nephropathy by virtue of them being a part of ECM components.
Recent Advances in the Structural Study of Functional Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate in Health and Disease
TLDR
This review focuses on recent advances in the study of the structure-function relation of CS, DS and their hybrid chains in physiological and pathological conditions.
ISCSM2011 chondroitin sulfate E-type structure at tumor cell surface is involved in experimental metastasis.
TLDR
Observations suggest that CS chains containing E-units are involved in the metastatic process of pulmonary metastasis involving CS chainscontaining E- units in a mouse model.
Research and Application of Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate-Degrading Enzymes
TLDR
A few of the identified enzymes, particularly those from bacteria, have wildly applied to the basic studies and applications of CS/DS, such as disaccharide composition analysis, the preparation of bioactive oligosaccharides, oligosACcharide sequencing, and potential medical application, but these do not fulfill all of the needs in terms of the structural complexity ofCS/DS.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
A functional dermatan sulfate epitope containing iduronate(2-O-sulfate)alpha1-3GalNAc(6-O-sulfate) disaccharide in the mouse brain: demonstration using a novel monoclonal antibody raised against dermatan sulfate of ascidian Ascidia nigra.
TLDR
A unique antibody is selected that recognizes iD-enriched oversulfated DS structures, which are implicated in the development of the hippocampus and cerebellum in the central nervous system and will also be applicable for investigating structural alterations in CS/DS in aging and pathological conditions.
Oversulfated Dermatan Sulfate Exhibits Neurite Outgrowth-promoting Activity toward Embryonic Mouse Hippocampal Neurons
TLDR
It is proposed that the neuritogenic property of the DSD-1 epitope may be attributable to a distinct CS structure characterized by the disulfated D disaccharide unit [GlcUA(2S)-GalNAc(6S)], and that this property may reflect the physiological neuritogenesis during brain development by mammalian oversulfated DS structures exemplified by the D SD- 1 epitope.
Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate Hybrid Chains from Embryonic Pig Brain, Which Contain a Higher Proportion of L-Iduronic Acid than Those from Adult Pig Brain, Exhibit Neuritogenic and Growth Factor Binding Activities*
TLDR
Findings imply that the temporal expression of CS/DS hybrid structures containing both GlcUA and IdoUA and binding activities toward various growth factors play important roles in neurogenesis in the early stages of the development of the brain.
Structural and Functional Characterization of Oversulfated Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate Hybrid Chains from the Notochord of Hagfish
TLDR
Kinetic analysis and competitive inhibition revealed the involvement of both IdoUA and GlcUA in the binding of these growth factors, suggesting the importance of the hybrid nature of CS-H for the efficient binding ofThese growth factors.
Structural characterization of the epitopes of the monoclonal antibodies 473HD, CS-56, and MO-225 specific for chondroitin sulfate D-type using the oligosaccharide library.
TLDR
Novel information on the sugar sequences containing the A-D tetrasaccharide core was obtained for the epitopes of these three useful mAbs, suggesting the close association of L-iduronic acid with the 473HD epitope.
Developmental Regulation of the Sulfation Profile of Chondroitin Sulfate Chains in the Chicken Embryo Brain*
TLDR
The findings suggest that the developmentally regulated expression of the sulfotransferases is a predominant factor for stage-specific regulation of chondroitin sulfate structures.
Novel 70-kDa Chondroitin Sulfate/Dermatan Sulfate Hybrid Chains with a Unique Heterogenous Sulfation Pattern from Shark Skin, Which Exhibit Neuritogenic Activity and Binding Activities for Growth Factors and Neurotrophic Factors*
TLDR
The CS/DS chains bound two neurotrophic factors and various growth factors expressed in the brain with high affinity as evaluated for the major fraction by kinetic analysis using a surface plasmon resonance detector, and also promoted the outgrowth of neurites of both an axonic and a dendritic nature.
Characteristic Hexasaccharide Sequences in Octasaccharides Derived from Shark Cartilage Chondroitin Sulfate D with a Neurite Outgrowth Promoting Activity*
TLDR
The biological activities and the structure of shark cartilage CS-D inhibited the interactions between monoclonal antibody 473HD and DSD-1-PG and also promoted neurite outgrowth of embryonic day 18 hippocampal neurons.
Heterogeneity of the Chondroitin Sulfate Portion of Phosphacan/6B4 Proteoglycan Regulates Its Binding Affinity for Pleiotrophin/Heparin Binding Growth-associated Molecule*
TLDR
Variation of chondroitin sulfate plays important roles in the regulation of signal transduction in the brain, as seen in purified phosphacan from postnatal day 7 and P12 rat cerebral cortex and from P20 rat whole brain.
Isolation of a neural chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with neurite outgrowth promoting properties
TLDR
The results show that the hybrid glycosaminoglycan structure DSD-1 supports the morphological differentiation of central nervous system neurons.
...
...