Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation.

  title={Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. I. Selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation.},
  author={John H. R. Maunsell and D. C. van Essen},
  journal={Journal of neurophysiology},
  volume={49 5},
1. Recordings were made from single units in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of anesthetized, paralyzed macaque monkeys. A computer-driven stimulator was used to make quantitative tests of selectivity for stimulus direction, speed, and orientation. The data were taken from 168 units that were histologically identified as being in MT. 2. The results confirm previous reports of a high degree of direction selectivity in MT. The response above background to stimuli moving in a unit's preferred… 

Direction and orientation selectivity of neurons in visual area MT of the macaque.

The notion that area MT represents a further specialization over area V1 for stimulus motion processing is supported and the marked similarities between direction and orientation tuning in area MT in macaque and owl monkey support the suggestion that these areas are homologues.

Receptive-field properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area (MT) of owl monkeys.

Response properties of single neurons in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of anesthetized owl monkeys were determined and quantified for flashed and moving bars of light under computer control

Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. II. Binocular interactions and sensitivity to binocular disparity.

The presence of a substantial degree of selectivity for fixed disparity in MT, together with previously demonstrated selectivities for direction and speed, indicates that MT is well suited for the analysis of motion in three-dimensional space.

Spatiotemporal characteristics of direction-selective neurons in the middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkeys

  • A. Mikami
  • Biology, Psychology
    Experimental Brain Research
  • 2004
It appears that the inhibitory mechanisms in the null direction are sufficiently strong to be induced by a single conditioning flash whereas the facilitatory mechanisms are weaker and several stimuli are required for production of the direction-selective response.

Motion selectivity in macaque visual cortex. I. Mechanisms of direction and speed selectivity in extrastriate area MT.

The direction selectivity of most MT neurons showed the effects of both inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms, and it was not possible to segregate MT neurons into distinct groups on the basis of these measures.

Comparison of the spatial limits on direction selectivity in visual areas MT and V1.

Responses to apparent motion from directionally selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized monkeys and middle temporal area (MT) of awake monkeys are recorded, supporting the hypothesis that basic direction selectivity in MT is inherited from V1, at least over the range of stimulus speeds represented by both areas.

Receptive field properties of neurons in area V3 of macaque monkey extrastriate cortex.

Receptive field properties of 147 neurons histologically verified to be located in area V3 were investigated during semichronic recording from paralyzed anesthetized macaque monkeys, suggesting that V3, like MT, is well suited for the analysis of several aspects of stimulus motion.

Microstimulation in visual area MT: effects on direction discrimination performance

A functional link between the activity of direction selective neurons and perceptual judgements of motion direction is demonstrated, and monkeys indicated that motion was in the neurons' preferred direction more frequently on stimulated trials than on nonstimulated trials.

Visual response properties of neurons in the middle and lateral suprasylvian cortices of the behaving cat

SummaryThe visual response properties of cells in the middle (MS) and lateral (LS) suprasylvian cortices were studied in alert cats, which were trained to fixate a spot of light and maintain fixation

Correlation between Speed Perception and Neural Activity in the Middle Temporal Visual Area

Comparison of psychometric and neurometric thresholds revealed that single and multineuronal signals were, on average, considerably less sensitive than were the monkeys perceptually, suggesting that signals must be pooled across neurons to account for performance.



Columnar organization of directionally selective cells in visual area MT of the macaque.

There was a systematic relationship between penetration angle and rate of change of preferred axis of motion, indicating that cells with a similar direction of motion preference are arranged in vertical columns and cells with opposite direction preferences are located in adjacent columns within a single axis ofmotion column.

Receptive-field characteristics of single neurons in lateral suprasylvian visual area of the cat.

The visual receptive fields of 213 cells in the lateral suprasylvian visual cortex were studied in cats anesthetized with nitrous oxide and there was little or no evidence that LS area cells were orientation selective or sensitive to variations in stimulus shape independent of size.

Visual receptive fields of striate cortex neurons in awake monkeys.

  • R. Wurtz
  • Biology
    Journal of neurophysiology
  • 1969
The purpose of the present experiments was to determine whether receptive fields of striate cortex neurons in the awake, behaving animal are similar to those in the anesthetized animal.

Visual response properties of neurons in four extrastriate visual areas of the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus): a quantitative comparison of medial, dorsomedial, dorsolateral, and middle temporal areas.

The response properties of 354 single neurons in the medial (M), dorsomedial (DM), dorsolateral (DL), and middle temporal (MT) visual areas were studied quantitatively with bar, spot, and random-dot stimuli in chronically implanted owl monkeys to support the hypothesis that there are specializations of function among the cortical visual areas.

Quantitative studies of single-cell properties in monkey striate cortex. I. Spatiotemporal organization of receptive fields.

The properties of single cells in striate cortex of the rhesus monkey, representing the visual field 2 degrees -5 degrees from the fovea, were examined quantitatively with stationary and moving stimuli and showed differences between S-type and CX-type cells.

Uniformity and diversity of structure and function in rhesus monkey prestriate visual cortex.

  • S. Zeki
  • Biology
    The Journal of physiology
  • 1978
It is argued that despite its uniformity in cytoarchitectural appearance and in ocular interaction patterns, there is a functional division of labour within the prestriate cortex.

Quantitative studies of single-cell properties in monkey striate cortex. II. Orientation specificity and ocular dominance.

Orientation selectivity and direction selectivity are independent of each other, suggesting that separate neural mechanisms give rise to them.

The functional properties of the light-sensitive neurons of the posterior parietal cortex studied in waking monkeys: foveal sparing and opponent vector organization

  • B. C. MotterV. Mountcastle
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1981
It is proposed that a dynamic central neural process associated with the acts of fixation and visual attention suppresses responses to foveal stimuli.

Properties of concentrically organized X and Y ganglion cells of macaque retina.

The results show that the X/Y dichotomy of ganglion cells is present in the retina of macaques and indicate that thedegree of the linearity of spatial summation of incoming cone signals to the cells is related to the degree of cone specificity of spectral inputs to the receptive-field mechanisms.

Receptive-field characteristics of neurons in cat striate cortex: Changes with visual field eccentricity.

Receptive-field properties of 214 neurons from cat striate cortex were studied to suggest that simple and complex cells analyze different aspects of a visual stimulus, and a hypothesis is provided which suggests that simple cells analyze input typically from one (or a few) geniculate neurons, while complex cells receive input from a larger region of geniculated neurons.