Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming

  title={Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming},
  author={Pierre Maquet and Jean-Marie Péters and Joel Aerts and Guy Delfiore and Christian Degueldre and Andr{\'e} Luxen and G. Franck},
RAPID-EYE-MOVEMENT (REM) sleep is associated with intense neuronal activity, ocular saccades, muscular atonia and dreaming1,2. The function of REM sleep remains elusive and its neural correlates have not been characterized precisely in man. Here we use positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping to study the brain state associated with REM sleep in humans. We report a group study of seven subjects who maintained steady REM sleep during brain scanning and recalled dreams upon… 
Human brain activity time-locked to rapid eye movements during REM sleep
The activation of the parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala simultaneously with REMs suggests that REMs and/or their generating mechanism are not merely an epiphenomenon of PGO waves, but may be linked to the triggering activation of these areas.
Dreaming : a neuroimaging view
Future functional brain imaging in humans should be combined with a careful neuropsychological analysis of dream reports, and especially their categorisation based on the presence of specific bizarre features, to test hypotheses about the brain correlates of dreams.
Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep.
It is demonstrated that NREM sleep oscillations (spindles and slow waves) are indeed associated with increases in brain activity in specific subcortical and cortical areas involved in the generation or modulation of these waves.
Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects
The results support the forebrain ‘dream-on’ hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding).
Global dissociation of the amygdala from the rest of the brain during REM sleep
Functional ultrasound imaging at the whole-brain scale during hundreds of REMS episodes is performed to provide the spatiotemporal dynamics of vascular activity in 259 brain regions spanning more than 2/3 of the total brain volume and shows that amygdala undergoes specific processing during REMS and may be linked to the regulation of emotions and the creation of dream content during this very state.
Brain Mechanisms of Sleep: Contribution of Neuroimaging Techniques
  • P. Maquet
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 1999
The functional interactions between the amygdala and the temporal cortex during REM sleep differ markedly from those during other states of vigilance, and there is also an inverse relationship between the activities of the primary and secondary visual areas.
Neuroimaging of Brain Oscillations During Human Sleep
Neuroimaging studies showed that neuronal oscillations of sleep regulate the interplay between the sleeping brain and external stimulations, and highlighted the role of spindles in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.
EEG oscillations during sleep and dream recall: state- or trait-like individual differences?
Empirical data from neuropsychological and electroencephalographic studies support the hypothesis that there is a sort of continuity between the neurophysiological mechanisms of encoding and retrieval of episodic memories across sleep and wakefulness.
Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming : A neuroimaging view q
Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity, and it is demonstrated that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams.


Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep
The CBF increase in the associative visual area suggests that activation of cerebral structures processing complex visual material is correlated to visual dream experiences, and the reduced involvement of the inferior frontal cortex observed during REM sleep might explain the poor temporal organization and bizarreness often experienced in dreams.
Localized and lateralized cerebral glucose metabolism associated with eye movements during REM sleep and wakefulness: a positron emission tomography (PET) study.
The results show that the same cortical areas are involved in eye movements in both REM sleep and wakefulness and suggest that REM sleep eye movements are saccadic scans of targets in the dream scene.
Of dreaming and wakefulness
Increases in number of REMS and REM density in humans following an intensive learning period.
Results support the idea of REM sleep and/or the REMs themselves being involved in long-term memory processing several days after the end of training.
The Dreaming Brain
This book discusses a Brain-Based Approach to Dreaming Early Dream Science, the Functions of REM Sleep and Dreaming, and the Interpretation of Dream Form.
Spatial working memory in humans as revealed by PET
P positron emission tomography studies of regional cerebral blood flow in normal humans that reveal activation in right-hemisphere prefrontal, occipital, parietal and premotor cortices accompanying spatial working memory processes begin to uncover the circuitry of a working memory system in humans.
Amygdalo‐cortical projections in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis)
Amygdalo‐cortical projections were analyzed in the macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis) in a series of experiments in which 3H‐amino acids were injected into each of the major divisions of the