Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema

  title={Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema},
  author={Konrad Stolz},
  journal={Acta Zoologica},
Timema is the most basal genus of Phasmatodea and the sister group to the remaining stick and leaf-insects (Euphasmatodea). An autapomorphy of all phasmids is the paired prothoracic exocrine defence glands. In this study, the anatomy and innervation of the defence glands in Timema petita and Timema chumash are described and compared with the data on Euphasmatodea. In all phasmids, the glands consist of a cuticular epithelium, a secretory epithelium and muscular fibres that compress the lumen… 
Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System
The innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved mot oneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel suboesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervated the defense gland.


Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects
Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments, and some evolutionary changes are notable in a conserved neuronal network.
Anatomie des Pterothorax der Phasmatodea, Mantophasmatodea und Embioptera und seine Bedeutung für die Phylogenie der Polyneoptera (Insecta)
The phylogenetic relationships within Polyneoptera and between several taxa of Phasmatodea were analysed based on 60 characters of the thorax and the wing base to indicate a sister group relationship between Embioptera and PhasMatodea.
On the head morphology of Phyllium and the phylogenetic relationships of Phasmatodea (Insecta)
The analysis of characters of the head yielded three new autapomorphies of Phylliinae, the presence of a protuberance on the attachment site of the dorsal tentorial arms, dorsoventrally flattened maxillary- and labial palps, and possibly the narrow and U-shaped field of trichomes on the apical part of the galea.
Sensory neuroanatomy of stick insects highlights the evolutionary diversity of the orthopteroid subgenual organ complex
The comparison of sensory structures indicates that elaborate scolopidial organs have evolved repeatedly among orthopteroids, and the distal organ in stick insects has the highest number of sensory neurons known for distal organs so far.
Vital staining of the stick insect digestive system identifies appendices of the midgut as novel system of excretion
It is confirmed that the appendices of the midgut do have an excretory function, but one unlike any other known in invertebrates, playing a role in calcium regulation and/or organic alkaloid sequestration.
A morphological study of Timema cristinae vickery with implications for the phylogenetics of phasmida
The hypothesis that Timema is the sister-group of all other extant Phasmida receives tentative support and the left genital process and vomer are tentatively proposed to be homologous.
Motor supply of the dorsal longitudinal muscles, I: homonomy and ontogeny of the motoneurones in locusts (Insecta, Caelifera)
This study of muscles and motoneurones forming identifiable, reiterated neuromuscular units can serve as a segmental matrix for a comparative study comprising other phylogenetic groups of the Tracheata.
Motor supply of the dorsal longitudinal muscles II: Comparison of motoneurone sets in Tracheata
The results support the idea that the structure of MNs in the largest present taxon of Insecta, the Dicondylia, is conserved irrespective of crucial changes in the periphery (e.g. primarily apterygote vs oteryGote).