Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema

@article{Stolz2019FunctionalMA,
  title={Functional morphology and neuronal innervation of the prothoracic defence gland in Timema},
  author={Konrad Stolz},
  journal={Acta Zoologica},
  year={2019},
  volume={100},
  pages={6-13}
}
Timema is the most basal genus of Phasmatodea and the sister group to the remaining stick and leaf-insects (Euphasmatodea). An autapomorphy of all phasmids is the paired prothoracic exocrine defence glands. In this study, the anatomy and innervation of the defence glands in Timema petita and Timema chumash are described and compared with the data on Euphasmatodea. In all phasmids, the glands consist of a cuticular epithelium, a secretory epithelium and muscular fibres that compress the lumen… 
Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System
TLDR
The innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved mot oneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel suboesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervated the defense gland.

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