Functional morphology and hydrodynamics of backward swimming in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus.

  title={Functional morphology and hydrodynamics of backward swimming in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus.},
  author={Brooke E. Flammang and George V. Lauder},
  volume={119 5},
Most teleost fishes, like the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, have multiple flexible fins that are used as modifiable control surfaces. This helps to make fish highly maneuverable, permitting behaviors like reversing direction of motion and swimming backwards without having to rotate body position. To answer the question of how fish swim backwards we used high-speed videography and electromyography to determine the kinematics and muscle activity necessary to produce reverse-direction… Expand
Quantitative hydrodynamic investigation of fish caudal fin cupping motion using a bio-robotic model
Quantitative analysis of wake flow further demonstrated that the caudal fin generated stronger vortex circulation with addition of cupping motion, and it is hypothesized that the fish may control the cupped motion to obtain better swimming efficiency under different swimming states. Expand
Linking muscle metabolism and functional variation to field swimming performance in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus)
The metabolic capacities of the caudal muscles were surprisingly low and inconsistent with their activity during steady-state BCF swimming at high speeds, which may reflect adaptation to the observed swimming behavior in the field, which typically involved short bouts of BCF-propulsive cycles rather than sustained propulsive activity. Expand
Hydrodynamic Analysis for the Morphing Median Fins of Tuna during Yaw Motions
  • Xiaohu Li
  • Medicine
  • Applied bionics and biomechanics
  • 2021
It is indicated that tuna can use the morphing median fins to adjust its mobility and stability, which provides a new idea for the design of robotic fish. Expand
Archer fish jumping prey capture: kinematics and hydrodynamics
Archer fish are unique aquatic predators capable of jumping multiple body lengths straight up out of the water using oscillatory caudal fin kinematics, in concert with other fins, for propulsion and stabilization. Expand
Energetics and behavior of coral reef fishes during oscillatory swimming in a simulated wave surge
The relationship between swimming mode, turning behavior and energetic costs in coral reef fishes is examined for station-hold swimming in wave-induced water motions. Expand
Longer development provides first‐feeding fish time to escape hydrodynamic constraints
It is suggested that prolonged development and increased ontogenetic state provides first‐feeding fish time to escape the pervasive hydrodynamic constraints (bow wave) of being small. Expand
Building a Fish: The Biology and Engineering Behind a Bioinspired Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Introduction True autonomy in a robotic system comes from being able to interpret environmental stimuli, overcome destabilizing perturbations, and make motor control modifications depending onExpand
Fluid Mechanics Analysis of the Sweep Motion of Tuna Median Fins
Study has shown that tuna can improve hydrodynamic performance and turning maneuverability by rapidly and accurately changing the shape of its median fins. In this paper, the shape change of tunaExpand
A survey on fabrication, control, and hydrodynamic function of biomimetic robotic fish
Understanding and replicating the locomotion principles of fish are fundamental in the development of artificial fishlike robotic systems, termed robotic fish. This paper has two objectives: (1) toExpand
Morphology of appendicular skeleton of the Thai mahseer’s Tor tambroides (Bleeker, 1854)
Thai mahseer has similar morphological characters of appendicular skeleton compared to its family (Cyprinidae) but has some difference when compared to other families (Osphronemidae, Zaproridae, dan Tetraodontidae). Expand


  • Gibb, Jayne, Lauder
  • Geology, Medicine
  • The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1994
The oscillatory movements of the pectoral fins of bluegill suggest that both lift- and drag-based propulsive mechanisms are used to generate forward thrust and the reduced frequency parameter and the Reynolds number indicate that acceleration reaction forces may contribute significantly to thrust production and to the total force balance on the fin. Expand
Caudal fin shape modulation and control during acceleration, braking and backing maneuvers in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus
The activity patterns of the intrinsic caudal muscles during maneuvering suggest motor control independent from myotomal musculature, and specialization of individual muscles for specific kinematic roles. Expand
Dorsal and anal fin function in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus: three-dimensional kinematics during propulsion and maneuvering
It is found that dorsal and anal fins begin oscillating, in phase, at steady swimming speeds above 1.0 TL s–1 and that maximum lateral displacement of the trailing edge of the fins as well as fin area increase with increasing steady swimming speed, suggesting that fish have a high level of control over fin surface shape. Expand
Locomotion of free-swimming ghost knifefish: anal fin kinematics during four behaviors.
Individual fin rays in the middle of the anal fin curved substantially along their length during swimming, and the magnitude of this curvature was nearly twice the previously measured maximum curvature for ray-finned fish fin rays during locomotion. Expand
Function of the dorsal fin in bluegill sunfish: Motor patterns during four distinct locomotor behaviors
Cumulative data from all four behaviors suggest that the Di muscles can be activated independently relative to the myomeric musculature rather than having a single phase relationship with the myomersic muscle common to all of the observed behaviors. Expand
Locomotor function of the dorsal fin in teleost fishes: experimental analysis of wake forces in sunfish.
Empirical evidence is presented that vortex structures generated by the soft dorsal fin upstream can constructively interact with those produced by the caudal fin downstream, and Reinforcement of circulation around the tail through interception of the dorsal fin's vortices is proposed as a mechanism for augmenting wake energy and enhancing thrust. Expand
Speed-dependent intrinsic caudal fin muscle recruitment during steady swimming in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus
Activity patterns of intrinsic caUDal muscles suggest that these most posterior muscles in fishes, located within the tail, are among the very first recruited as swimming speed increases, and that slow undulatory swimming is powered by muscle fibers located posteriorly in the caudal peduncle and tail. Expand
Mechanics of propulsion by multiple fins: kinematics of aquatic locomotion in the burrfish (Chilomycterus schoepfi)
Locomotion in tetraodontiform fishes (puffers and relatives) involves the use of multiple fins for propulsion during swimming. A variety of tertraodontiform swimming modes have been defined, but theExpand
Functional morphology of the fin rays of teleost fishes
This work examined the range of motion and curvatures of the pectoral fin rays of bluegill sunfish during steady swimming, turning maneuvers, and hovering behaviors and during a vortex perturbation impacting the fin during the fin beat, suggesting flexibility may offer intrinsic damping of environmental fluid perturbations encountered by swimming fish. Expand
Fish locomotion: kinematics and hydrodynamics of flexible foil-like fins
The fins of fishes are remarkable propulsive devices that appear at the origin of fishes about 500 million years ago and have been a key feature of fish evolutionary diversification. Most fishExpand