Functional morphology and hydrodynamics of backward swimming in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus.

@article{Flammang2016FunctionalMA,
  title={Functional morphology and hydrodynamics of backward swimming in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus.},
  author={Brooke E. Flammang and George V. Lauder},
  journal={Zoology},
  year={2016},
  volume={119 5},
  pages={
          414-420
        }
}
Most teleost fishes, like the bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, have multiple flexible fins that are used as modifiable control surfaces. This helps to make fish highly maneuverable, permitting behaviors like reversing direction of motion and swimming backwards without having to rotate body position. To answer the question of how fish swim backwards we used high-speed videography and electromyography to determine the kinematics and muscle activity necessary to produce reverse-direction… Expand
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