Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

@article{Sperling2001FunctionalIO,
  title={Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.},
  author={Petra Sperling and Bal{\'a}zs Libisch and Ulrich Zähringer and Johnathan A. Napier and Ernst Heinz},
  journal={Archives of biochemistry and biophysics},
  year={2001},
  volume={388 2},
  pages={
          293-8
        }
}
The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl… 
Cloning and molecular characterisation of a Δ8-sphingolipid-desaturase from Nicotiana tabacum closely related to Δ6-acyl-desaturases
TLDR
Functional assays revealed that the protein encoded by NTDXDES lacks Δ6-desaturase activity, but instead it is able to desaturate sphingolipid substrates by introducing a double bond on the Δ8-position, which indicates that NTDxDES represent a novel desaturase gene placed in a different evolutionary lineage to that of previously characterised Δ8.
Functional characterisation of two cytochrome b5-fusion desaturases from Anemone leveillei: the unexpected identification of a fatty acid Δ6-desaturase
TLDR
Northern analysis confirmed the expression of this gene in seed tissue and leaf tissue of A. leveillei, though Δ6-desaturated fatty acids were found to accumulate only in the leaf tissue, and this is the first report of a higher-plant Δ 6-desaturase from a family other than the Boraginaceae.
Genes encoding Δ8-sphingolipid desaturase from various plants: identification, biochemical functions, and evolution
TLDR
The genes of 20 ∆8-sphingolipid desaturases from 12 plants were identified and functionally detected by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae system to elucidate the relationship between the biochemical function and evolution of this enzyme.
Identification and functional characterization of two Δ12-fatty acid desaturases associated with essential linoleic acid biosynthesis in Physcomitrella patens
Two Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from Physcomitrella patens and their functions
Identification and Functional Characterization of the 2-Hydroxy Fatty N-Acyl-Δ3(E)-desaturase from Fusarium graminearum*
TLDR
A new family of polypeptides carrying the histidine box motifs characteristic for membrane-bound desaturases is identified with a bioinformatics approach, and one of the corresponding genes was functionally characterized as a sphingolipid-Δ3(E)-desaturase.
Fatty acid desaturases from the microalga Thalassiosira pseudonana
TLDR
It is reported here that three of the six putative desaturase genes encode Δ6‐, Δ5‐ and Δ4‐desaturases involved in production of the health beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and one of the remaining genes, TpdesB, encodes a Δ8‐sphingolipid desaturases with strong preference for dihydroxylated substrates.
Identification and functional analysis of the genes encoding Δ6-desaturase from Ribes nigrum†
TLDR
Five nearly identical copies of Δ6-desaturase gene-like sequences were isolated from blackcurrant and provided new insights to the understanding of GLA synthesis and accumulation in plants and the evolutionary relationship of this class of desaturases.
Three homologous genes encoding functional ∆8-sphingolipid desaturase in Populus tomentosa
TLDR
The findings further elucidated the biochemical functions and evolutionary history of Δ8-sphingolipid desaturases in plants and candidate genes for breeding new poplar germplasm resources with enhanced tolerance ability to aluminium were provided.
Isolation and Characterization of Δ6-Desaturase, an ELO-Like Enzyme and Δ5-Desaturase from the Liverwort Marchantia Polymorpha and Production of Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia Pastoris
TLDR
Interestingly, Δ6 desaturation by the expression of the MpDES6 cDNA appears to occur both in glycerolipids and the acyl-CoA pool, although other lower-plant Δ6-desaturases are known to have a strong preference for glycerlipids.
Isolation and Characterization of the Genes Encoding Δ8-Sphingolipid Desaturase from Saccharomyces kluyveri and Kluyveromyces lactis
TLDR
Conversion of 4-Hydroxysphinganine to 4-hydroxy-trans-8-sphingenine in the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed by the expressed gene from K. kluyveri and not by that from S. lactis, which may be explained by the difference in substrate specificity for the sphingoid base moiety.
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TLDR
Results show that the sunflower gene codes for a Δ8-sphingolipid desaturase which accepts C18- and C20-phytosphinganine, and in yeast, the substrate for the plant Δ9-regioisomers seems to be the phytosphinga residue.
A cytochrome-b5-containing fusion protein similar to plant acyl lipid desaturases.
TLDR
The similarity between oleate and linoleate desaturase sequences from several plants was used to construct degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of ripening sunflower embryos and desaturases revealed to be novel members of the cytochrome b5 superfamily.
Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of delta6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco.
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TLDR
To enable the production of GLA in conventional oilseeds, a cDNA encoding the delta6-fatty acid desaturase from developing seeds of borage is isolated and its function is confirmed by expression in transgenic tobacco plants.
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TLDR
A recently cloned cDNA from sunflower codes for a fusion protein composed of an N-terminal cytochromeb 5 and a domain similar to membrane-bound acyl lipid desaturases that is a new member of the cytochrome b 5superfamily.
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TLDR
The results from this study suggest that the properties and catalytic mechanism of Ser palmitoyltransferase from squash are similar to those of the animal, fungal, and bacterial enzyme in most respects.
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TLDR
It is indicated that dihydroceramide is used as the initial backbone of complex (glyco)sphingolipids, perhaps to avoid build up of ceramide as an intermediate since this is such a potent bioactive compound.
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