Functional electrical stimulation for walking in paraplegia.

  title={Functional electrical stimulation for walking in paraplegia.},
  author={Ernest B. Marsolais and Rudi Kobetic},
  journal={The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume},
  volume={69 5},
In paraplegic subjects who had functional transection of the spinal cord at a level between the fourth and the eleventh thoracic vertebra, independent reciprocal walking was achieved with the use of a portable microprocessor-controlled stimulator that electrically activated the muscles through percutaneous intramuscular wire electrodes. The electrodes were implanted, by means of hypodermic needles, in the flexors, extensors, abductors, and adductors of the hip; the extensors of the knee; and… CONTINUE READING


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