Functional design of horse hoof keratin: the modulation of mechanical properties through hydration effects.

@article{Bertram1987FunctionalDO,
  title={Functional design of horse hoof keratin: the modulation of mechanical properties through hydration effects.},
  author={John E. A. Bertram and John M. Gosline},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={1987},
  volume={130},
  pages={121-36}
}
Tensile moduli and J-integral fracture toughness values were determined for horse hoof-wall keratin at four hydration levels. The stiffness of hoof-wall was influenced by water content to a greater degree than is the stiffness of other mammalian hard keratins. Young's modulus increased from 410 MPa at 100% relative hydration (RH) to 14.6 GPa at 0% RH. Fracture toughness was maximal (22.8 kJ m-2) at an intermediate hydration (75% RH), which represents a two-fold increase over both fully hydrated… CONTINUE READING