Functional characterization of the Tetranychus urticae CYP392A11, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates the METI acaricides cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate.

Abstract

Cyenopyrafen is a Mitochondrial Electron Transport Inhibitor (METI) acaricide with a novel mode of action at complex II, which has been recently developed for the control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a pest of eminent importance globally. However, some populations of T. urticae are cross-resistant to this molecule, and cyenopyrafen resistance can be readily selected in the lab. The cytochrome P450s genes CYP392A11 and CYP392A12 have been strongly associated with the phenotype. We expressed the CYP392A11 and the CYP392A12 genes with T. urticae cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) in Escherichia coli. CYP392A12 was expressed predominately as an inactive form, witnessed by a peak at P420, despite optimization efforts on expression conditions. However, expression of CYP392A11 produced a functional enzyme, with high activity and preference for the substrates Luciferin-ME EGE and ethoxycoumarin. CYP392A11 catalyses the conversion of cyenopyrafen to a hydroxylated analogue (kcat = 2.37 pmol/min/pmol P450), as well as the hydroxylation of fenpyroximate (kcat = 1.85 pmol/min/pmol P450). In addition, transgenic expression of CYP392A11 in Drosophila melanogaster, in conjunction with TuCPR, confers significant levels of fenpyroximate resistance. The overexpression of CYP392A11 in multi-resistant T. urticae strains, not previously exposed to cyenopyrafen, which had been indicated by microarray studies, was confirmed by qPCR, and it was correlated with significant levels of cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate cross-resistance. The implications of our findings for insecticide resistance management strategies are discussed.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ibmb.2015.09.004

Cite this paper

@article{Riga2015FunctionalCO, title={Functional characterization of the Tetranychus urticae CYP392A11, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates the METI acaricides cyenopyrafen and fenpyroximate.}, author={Maria Riga and Antonis Myridakis and Dimitra Tsakireli and Evangelia Morou and Euripides G. Stephanou and Ralf Nauen and Thomas Van Leeuwen and Vassilis Douris and John Vontas}, journal={Insect biochemistry and molecular biology}, year={2015}, volume={65}, pages={91-9} }