Functional characterization of a veA-dependent polyketide synthase gene in Aspergillus flavus necessary for the synthesis of asparasone, a sclerotium-specific pigment.

@article{Cary2014FunctionalCO,
  title={Functional characterization of a veA-dependent polyketide synthase gene in Aspergillus flavus necessary for the synthesis of asparasone, a sclerotium-specific pigment.},
  author={Jeffrey W. Cary and Pamela Y. Harris-Coward and Kenneth C. Ehrlich and Jos{\'e} Diana di Mavungu and Svetlana V. Malysheva and Sarah de Saeger and Patrick F. Dowd and Sourabha Shantappa and Stacey L Martens and Ana M Calvo},
  journal={Fungal genetics and biology : FG \& B},
  year={2014},
  volume={64},
  pages={
          25-35
        }
}
Melanisation of Aspergillus terreus—Is Butyrolactone I Involved in the Regulation of Both DOPA and DHN Types of Pigments in Submerged Culture?
TLDR
An intriguing, partially annotated gene cluster of A. terreus strain NIH2624 is examined, utilizing previously sequenced transcriptome and improved gene expression data, and a hypothesis of this PKS cluster to biosynthesise a 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-type of pigment during sporulation with the influence of butyrolactone I under submerged culture is presented.
Identification of a copper-transporting ATPase involved in biosynthesis of A. flavus conidial pigment
TLDR
Investigation of the involvement of melanin biosynthesis in A. flavus conidial pigment formation implies that both pathways have no bearing on conidials pigment biosynthesis of A. Flavus.
Transcriptome Analysis of Aspergillus flavus Reveals veA-Dependent Regulation of Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters, Including the Novel Aflavarin Cluster
TLDR
The present transcriptome study shows that veA is necessary for the expression of a large number of genes, and predicts that cluster 39 is responsible for the production of aflavarin.
Secondary Metabolite Dereplication and Phylogenetic Analysis Identify Various Emerging Mycotoxins and Reveal the High Intra-Species Diversity in Aspergillus flavus
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most important mycotoxigenic species from the genus Aspergillus, due to its ability to synthesize the potent hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Moreover, this fungus is
rmtA-Dependent Transcriptome and Its Role in Secondary Metabolism, Environmental Stress, and Virulence in Aspergillus flavus
TLDR
Over 2000 genes that were rmtA-dependent, including over 200 transcription factor genes, as well as an uncharacterized secondary metabolite gene cluster possibly responsible for the synthesis of an epidithiodiketopiperazine-like compound are identified.
A cryptic pigment biosynthetic pathway uncovered by heterologous expression is essential for conidial development in Pestalotiopsis fici
TLDR
A polyketide synthase gene PfmaE is identified and deleted and showed that it is essential for multicellular conidial pigmentation and development in a plant endophytic fungus, Pestalotiopsis fici, and cement a growing understanding that pigments are essential not simply for protection of spores from biotic and abiotic stresses but also for spore structural development.
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References

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Elucidation of veA-dependent genes associated with aflatoxin and sclerotial production in Aspergillus flavus by functional genomics
TLDR
Microarray technology was used to identify a subgroup of veA-dependent genes that exhibited time-dependent expression profiles similar to those of known aflatoxin biosynthetic genes or that were candidates for involvement in sclerotial production in the wild type.
The velvet gene, FgVe1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.
TLDR
The velvet gene from F. graminearum is identified and Pathogenicity studies performed on flowering wheat plants indicate that FgVe1 is a positive regulator of virulence in F. Graminearu.
veA Is Required for Toxin and Sclerotial Production in Aspergillus parasiticus
TLDR
The results indicate that A. parasiticus veA is required for the expression of aflR and aflJ, which regulate the activation of the aflatoxin gene cluster, and deletion of veA reduced conidiation both on the culture medium and on peanut seed.
The Expression of Sterigmatocystin and Penicillin Genes in Aspergillus nidulans Is Controlled by veA, a Gene Required for Sexual Development
TLDR
VeA, a gene previously shown to control the Aspergillus nidulans sexual/asexual developmental ratio in response to light, also controls secondary metabolism and regulates the expression of genes implicated in the synthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and the antibiotic penicillin.
The Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Cluster Gene, aflX, Encodes an Oxidoreductase Involved in Conversion of Versicolorin A to Demethylsterigmatocystin
TLDR
It is shown that a fourth enzyme, encoded by the previously uncharacterized gene, aflX (ordB), is also required for conversion of versicolorin A (VA), to demethylsterigmatocystin, and predicted to have domains typical of an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase.
Homologous NRPS-like gene clusters mediate redundant small-molecule biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.
TLDR
The use of comparative metabolomics is demonstrated for the analysis of knock-out, overexpression, and knock-down strains to identify metabolites derived from two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete Aspergillus flavus, a crop contaminant and opportunistic pathogen that causes aspergillosis in immunocompromised humans.
Beyond aflatoxin: four distinct expression patterns and functional roles associated with Aspergillus flavus secondary metabolism gene clusters.
TLDR
Aflatoxin and CPA were found to have unique regulation, but are sufficiently similar that they would be expected to co-occur in substrates colonized with A. flavus.
Production of cyclopiazonic acid, aflatrem, and aflatoxin by Aspergillus flavus is regulated by veA, a gene necessary for sclerotial formation
TLDR
It is shown that a gene called veA not only is necessary for the production of aflatoxins B1 and B2 and sclerotia, but also regulates the synthesis of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem.
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