Functional assessment of the fetal heart: a review.

@article{Godfrey2012FunctionalAO,
  title={Functional assessment of the fetal heart: a review.},
  author={Max E. Godfrey and Baruch Messing and Sarah M Cohen and Dan Valsky and Simcha Yagel},
  journal={Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology},
  year={2012},
  volume={39 2},
  pages={
          131-44
        }
}
The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current modalities available for the assessment of fetal cardiac function. The unique anatomy and physiology of the fetal circulation are described, with reference to the difference between in-utero and ex-utero life. M-mode, early/atrial ratio, myocardial performance index, three-dimensional and four-dimensional ultrasound, tissue Doppler including strain and strain rate, speckle tracking, magnetic resonance imaging and venous flow assessment are… CONTINUE READING
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