Functional and comparative assessments of the octopus learning and memory system.

@article{Hochner2010FunctionalAC,
  title={Functional and comparative assessments of the octopus learning and memory system.},
  author={Binyamin Hochner},
  journal={Frontiers in bioscience},
  year={2010},
  volume={2},
  pages={
          764-71
        }
}
  • B. Hochner
  • Published 2010
  • Biology
  • Frontiers in bioscience
The octopus and its close relatives the cuttlefish and squid are the most advanced of the invertebrates, possessing the largest brains both in weight and cell numbers. Here I review recent studies of the neurophysiological properties of the vertical lobe system (VL) in the cephalopod brain, a system already thought to be dedicated to learning and memory. Summarizing from the point of view of comparative evolution, I relate these results to other systems where anatomical and electrophysiological… 

Figures from this paper

The vertical lobe of cephalopods: an attractive brain structure for understanding the evolution of advanced learning and memory systems
TLDR
It is shown that the cephalopod vertical lobe (VL) provides a good system for assessing the level of evolutionary convergence of the function and organization of neuronal circuitry for mediating learning and memory in animals with complex behavior and the properties of the neurons, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and mechanisms of long-term potentiation induction and maintenance are highly variable among different species.
The cephalopod specialties: complex nervous system, learning, and cognition1
TLDR
Free of the molluscan shell and with evolutionary pressure from the bony fishes, coleoids have evolved a specialty in cognition and they may have a simple form of consciousness.
A Novel Approach to Primary Cell Culture for Octopus vulgaris Neurons
TLDR
A protocol is developed that enables dissociation of neurons from two specific Octopus' brain regions, the vertical-superior frontal system and the optic lobes, which are involved in memory, learning, sensory integration and adult neurogenesis, and underscores the importance of Octopus neurons as a model system for deciphering fundamental molecular and cellular mechanism of complex brain function and underlying behaviors.
Cephalopod Brains: An Overview of Current Knowledge to Facilitate Comparison With Vertebrates
TLDR
A critical analysis of cephalopod neural systems showing similarities to the cerebral cortex, thalamus, basal ganglia, midbrain, cerebellum, hypothalamus, brain stem, and spinal cord of vertebrates is described.
Enriched Environment Increases PCNA and PARP1 Levels in Octopus vulgaris Central Nervous System: First Evidence of Adult Neurogenesis in Lophotrochozoa
TLDR
The experimental data obtained by immunohistochemistry and western blot assay using proliferating cell nuclear antigen and poli (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 as marker of cell proliferation and synaptogenesis, respectively, reviled cell proliferation in areas of brain involved in learning, memory, and sensory stimuli integration.
Distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity within the brain of oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana
TLDR
It is found that GABAergic neurons and their axons were distributed throughout the brain of young S. lessoniana, and the involvement of GABA in both cognitive behaviors (such as learning and memory) and in movement isested.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 83 REFERENCES
The Octopus: A Model for a Comparative Analysis of the Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms
TLDR
The emerging results suggest that a convergent evolutionary process has led to the selection of vertebrate-like neural organization and activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in octopuses and vertebrates, and suggests the importance of the shared properties for the mediation of learning and memory.
A learning and memory area in the octopus brain manifests a vertebrate-like long-term potentiation.
TLDR
Findings suggest that convergent evolution has led to the selection of similar activity-dependent synaptic processes that mediate complex forms of learning and memory in vertebrates and invertebrates.
The Cellular Mechanisms of Learning in Aplysia: Of Blind Men and Elephants
  • D. Glanzman
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Biological Bulletin
  • 2006
TLDR
Evidence is presented that postsynaptic mechanisms play a far more important role in nonassociative learning in Aplysia than has been appreciated before now and the potential applicability of this hypothesis to learning-related synaptic plasticity in the mammalian brain is discussed.
Computation in the Learning System of Cephalopods.
  • J. Young
  • Biology
    The Biological bulletin
  • 1991
TLDR
The evidence suggests that learning in cephalopods is not localized to certain layers or "grandmother cells" but is distributed with high redundance in serial networks, with recurrent circuits.
Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects.
TLDR
It is shown that gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in generalist scarabs are not associated with an increase in the size of their primary input neuropil, the antennal lobe, or in the number of antennale lobe glomeruli but rather with an apparent increased in the density of calycal microglomeruli and the acquisition of calYcal subpartitions.
The fine structure of the vertical lobe of octopus brain.
  • E. G. Gray
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1970
TLDR
Electron microscopy supports Young's suggestion that the superior frontal and interconnected vertical lobe systems constitute a loop which could sustain a positive feed-back mechanism while the 'pain' (nocifensor) input could exert a suppressor (inhibitory) effect on the loop by its action on the large cells.
Comparative analysis of learning in honeybees
The performance of free-flying and harnessed honeybees has been studied in a variety of experiments patterned after those in which learning in vertebrates has been studied—among them experiments on
...
...