Functional and Evolutionary Implications of the Distribution of Phosphagens in Primitive-Type Spermatozoa.

@article{Ellington1998FunctionalAE,
  title={Functional and Evolutionary Implications of the Distribution of Phosphagens in Primitive-Type Spermatozoa.},
  author={W. Ross Ellington and Stephen T. Kinsey},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  year={1998},
  volume={195 3},
  pages={264-272}
}
External fertilization is considered to be the primitive condition in metazoans. The spermatozoa of such organisms typically display a common primitive-type morphology that is present in a range of phyla. These spermatozoa are extremely polarized cells in that the site of ATP synthesis (mitochondria in midpiece) is located at large diffusion distances from the ATP sink (dynein ATPases in the flagellum). Spermatozoa of polychaetes, sipunculids, echiuroids, echinoderms, and tunicates contain the… CONTINUE READING

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