Functional anatomy of the Achilles tendon

  title={Functional anatomy of the Achilles tendon},
  author={Mahmut Nedim Doral and Mahbub ul Alam and Murat Fani Bozkurt and Egemen Turhan and Ozgur Ahmet Atay and G{\"u}rhan D{\"o}nmez and Nicola Maffulli},
  journal={Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy},
  • M. Doral, M. Alam, N. Maffulli
  • Published 25 February 2010
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
The Achilles tendon is the strongest and thickest tendon in the human body. It is also the commonest tendon to rupture. It begins near the middle of the calf and is the conjoint tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The relative contribution of the two muscles to the tendon varies. Spiralisation of the fibres of the tendon produces an area of concentrated stress and confers a mechanical advantage. The calcaneal insertion is specialised and designed to aid the dissipation of stress… 

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Achilles tendon pathology is common and affects athletes and nonathletes alike, and male individuals have a higher maximum tendon rupture force and stiffness, in part due to a larger cross-sectional area, than female individuals.

Lubricin in human achilles tendon: The evidence of intratendinous sliding motion and shear force in achilles tendon

  • Yu-Long SunZhuang Wei K. An
  • Engineering, Biology
    Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • 2015
The presence of intratendinous sliding motion of fascicles and shear force at interfaces of fascicle in human Achilles tendon is suggested to be an important mechanical factor for the development of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture.

Force Transmission Between the Gastrocnemius and Soleus Sub-Tendons of the Achilles Tendon in Rat

The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which the ISTM facilitates relative sliding between sub-tendons, and serves as a pathway for force transmission between the gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) sub-Tendons of the rat AT.

Subject-Specific Finite Element Analysis of In-vivo Healthy and Tendinopathic Achilles Tendons

A strong variability between individual tendons is highlighted and indicate that the tendon geometry has a greater influence on the stress distribution than the tendon material properties.

The twisted structure of the fetal calcaneal tendon is already visible in the second trimester

The twisted structure of the subtendons of the fetal calcaneal tendon is already visible in the second trimester and is similar to that seen in adults.

Post-operative MRI and US appearance of the Achilles tendons

The postoperative imaging findings and their evolution after surgery are described, which show that after surgery, the Achilles tendon is more vascularized in power-Doppler imaging.

Tendon Structure and Classification

Tendons play an important role in the movement by transmitting the contraction force produced by the muscles to the bone they hold, and their contribution to stability to the joints is extremely

Endoscopy assisted percutaneous repair of achilles tendon ruptures

Endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon, which is important in the biological healing of the AT, and this technique is a reasonable treatment option in AT rupture.



The arterial anatomy of the Achilles tendon: Anatomical study and clinical implications

A detailed anatomical study of both the intrinsic and extrinsic arterial supply of the Achilles tendon is provided, providing the detail sought from studies calling for improved planning of surgical procedures where damage to the vascularity of the tendon is likely.

Blood supply of the achilles tendon

The Achilles tendon is one of the most common sites of injury and rupture as a result of overuse. Evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of rupture could involve the pattern of its blood supply.

The Achilles Tendon Insertion is Crescent-shaped: An In Vitro Anatomic Investigation

Anatomic and operative textbooks and current literature do not clearly describe the Achilles tendon interface to the calcaneal tuberosity. We dissected 51 specimens to identify the detailed anatomy

Development of the human Achilles tendon enthesis organ

The sequence in which the various elements became apparent suggests that bursal formation and the appearance of the crural fascia may be necessary to facilitate the foot movements that subsequently lead to fibrocartilage differentiation.

Structure and histopathology of the insertional region of the human achilles tendon

  • A. RufaiJ. RalphsM. Benjamin
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • 1995
The structure and histopathology of the insertional region in 50 tendons from cadavers, including Achilles tendon inserts onto the calcaneus, and the retrocalcaneal bursa intervenes between it and the bone immediately proximal to the enthesis, were examined.

Biomechanics of the Achilles tendon

The traditional concept of tensile failure may not be the essential feature of the pathomechanics of insertional tendinopathy and additional work is needed to ascertain whether such principles should be incorporated in current rehabilitation.

Rupture of the Achilles tendon.

  • N. Maffulli
  • Medicine
    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • 1999
In conclusion, it is felt that inspection at ten days substantially reduces the rate of late rupture, and if surgery is necessary, the ten-day delay seems to diminish the problems with wound-healing associated with acute surgery.

Relationships of the sural nerve with the calcaneal tendon: an anatomical study with surgical and clinical implications

The course of the sural nerve is quite variable and seems to have the highest risk of injury at its proximal portion, and the sutures placed on the CT distal to the 55% of the mid-tendon line may decrease iatrogenic nerve injury.

Quantitative assessment of intravascular volume of the human Achilles tendon

The reduced vascularization in the middle part of the human Achilles tendon may play a role in degeneration and spontaneous rupture of the tendon.

Anatomy of the sural nerve in a computer-assisted model: implications for surgical minimal-invasive Achilles tendon repair

In the lateral crossing region of the sural nerve and the lateral proximal Achilles tendon 9–12 cm proximal to the tuber calcanei, a close relationship of both anatomical structures can be visualised using computer-assisted measurements; caution is suggested to preventSural nerve entrapment in either open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.