In insects, specific proteins and physiologically active molecules whose functions are related to their lifestyles are secreted from the salivary system. To investigate proteins/molecules related to the sociality of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.), we performed a proteomic analysis of the honeybee salivary system. The honeybee salivary system comprises two secretory glands: the postcerebral gland (PcG) and the thoracic gland (TG), both of which are connected to a common duct that opens in the mouthpart. Although most (31 out of 35) of the major proteins identified from the PcG and TG were housekeeping proteins, the spot intensities for aldolase and acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2 were stronger in the PcG than in the TG in the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Immunoblotting confirmed that the expression of these proteins was stronger in the PcG than in the TG, whereas expression was almost not detectable in the hypopharyngeal gland (HpG), suggesting that carbohydrate metabolism is enhanced in the honeybee PcG. In addition, imaginal disc growth factor 4 (IDGF4) was synthesized in the honeybee salivary system. Immunoblotting indicated IDGF4 expression was very strong in the PcG, moderate in the TG, and very weak in the HpG. A considerable amount of IDGF4 was detected in the royal jelly, while less was detected in honey, strongly suggesting that the honeybee salivary system secretes IDGF4 into the royal jelly and honey. The secreted IDGF4 might therefore affect growth and physiology of the other colony members.