Functional Outcomes Following Radical Cystectomy in Women with Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review.


CONTEXT Gender-specific functional and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BCa) remain unclear, with many studies excluding women from the study population. OBJECTIVE To better characterize female-specific functional outcomes following RC and urinary diversion for BCa. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION We performed a critical review of PubMed/Medline and Embase in August 2015 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. Outcomes of interest included urinary function (for orthotopic neobladder), sexual function, bowel function, and quality of life. Excluded were nonbladder malignancies, RCs performed for neurogenic bladder dysfunction, and patients with exposure to radiation therapy prior to surgery. Forty-five publications were selected for inclusion in this analysis. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS Included reports addressed urinary function (34 studies), sexual function (11 studies), and HRQOL (9 studies). All studies had a high risk of bias and ranged significantly in sample size, inclusion criteria, and follow-up time, precluding meaningful meta-analysis. Daytime incontinence approximated 20%, nighttime incontinence 20%, and hypercontinence 10-20%. Sexual function appeared to be better among those patients undergoing genitalia-sparing RC, but generally poor outcomes were noted among those undergoing routine RC. Only 40% of studies assessed sexual function using standardized instruments. HRQOL differences between diversion types appeared to be minimal, whereas comparisons with the general population revealed significant differences in emotional problems, role functioning, fatigue, and appetite. CONCLUSIONS Functional outcomes among women undergoing RC for BCa are poorly studied with limitations regarding use of validated questionnaires, heterogeneous patient populations, and small sample sizes. Collaborative efforts will be needed to better define functional outcomes among this poorly studied patient population. PATIENT SUMMARY We reviewed functional outcomes following cystectomy among women with bladder cancer. We found that urinary, sexual, and bowel function and quality of life are poorly studied among women, with function ranging significantly across studies.

DOI: 10.1016/j.euf.2016.05.005

Cite this paper

@article{Smith2017FunctionalOF, title={Functional Outcomes Following Radical Cystectomy in Women with Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review.}, author={Angela B Smith and Karen E Crowell and Michael E. Woods and Eric Wallen and Raj Som Pruthi and Matthew Edward Nielsen and Cheryl T. Lee}, journal={European urology focus}, year={2017}, volume={3 1}, pages={136-143} }