Functional Anatomical Correlates of Controlled and Automatic Processing

  title={Functional Anatomical Correlates of Controlled and Automatic Processing},
  author={J. Martijn Jansma and Nick F. Ramsey and Heleen A. Slagter and Ren{\'e} S. Kahn},
  journal={Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
Behavioral studies have shown that consistent practice of a cognitive task can increase the speed of performance and reduce variability of responses and error rate, reflecting a shift from controlled to automatic processing. This study examines how the shift from controlled to automatic processing changes brain activity. A verbal Sternberg task was used with continuously changing targets (novel task, NT) and with constant, practiced targets (practiced task, PT). NT and PT were presented in a… 
fMRI Guided rTMS Evidence for Reduced Left Prefrontal Involvement after Task Practice
The results show that task practice in a consistent environment reduces involvement of the prefrontal cortex, and suggest that prefrontal cortex is predominantly involved in target maintenance and comparison, as rTMS interference was only detectable for targets.
Dissociating the effects of Sternberg working memory demands in prefrontal cortex
Increased neural efficiency with repeated performance of a working memory task is information-type dependent.
FMRI activation decreases in both spatial and object-selective areas after spatial WM task repetition indicate that spatial task repetition leads to increased efficiency of maintaining task-relevant information and improved ability to filter out task-irrelevant information.


A Parametric Study of Prefrontal Cortex Involvement in Human Working Memory
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to probe PFC activity during a sequential letter task in which memory load was varied in an incremental fashion, providing a "dose-response curve" describing the involvement of both PFC and related brain regions in WM function.
Practice‐related functional activation changes in a working memory task
The results suggest, minimally, that practice effects should be considered so as to avoid incorrectly attributing functional activation to a cognitive process of interest and show that the dynamics of functional change can be tracked while a task is being learned and as an important cognitive process becomes more skilled.
Practice-related changes in human brain functional anatomy during nonmotor learning.
Examination of the functional anatomy of the human brain with positron emission tomography during the naive and practiced performance of a simple verbal response selection task indicates that two distinct circuits can be used forverbal response selection and normal subjects can change the brain circuits used during task performance following less than 15 min of practice.
Prefrontal cortex fMRI signal changes are correlated with working memory load
Significant changes in signal intensity occurred in the DLPFC, frontal motor regions and the intraparietal sulcus in both comparisons and suggest that signal changes in D LPFC correlate with WM load.
Load-Dependent Roles of Frontal Brain Regions in the Maintenance of Working Memory
Increasing the amount of to-be-maintained information, without any overt manipulation requirement, resulted in the recruitment of wide-spread frontal-lobe regions.
The effects of practice on the functional anatomy of task performance.
The effects of practice on the functional anatomy observed in two different tasks, a verbal and a motor task, are reviewed and a "scaffolding-storage" framework is interpreted, possibly representing storage of particular associations or capabilities that allow for skilled performance.
Dynamic changes in the functional anatomy of thehuman brain during recall of abstract designs related topractice
Maintenance versus Manipulation of Information Held in Working Memory: An Event-Related fMRI Study
In each subject, activity during the delay period was found in both dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC in both types of trials, however, dorsal/ventral PFC activity was greater in manipulation trials, consistent with the processing model of the functional organization of working memory in PFC.
Schizophrenic subjects activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a working memory task, as measured by fMRI