Functional (psychogenic) stereotypies

  title={Functional (psychogenic) stereotypies},
  author={Jos{\'e} Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo and Joseph Jankovic},
  journal={Journal of Neurology},
Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs) may present with a broad spectrum of phenomenology including stereotypic movements. [...] Key Result From a cohort of 184 patients with FMDs, we identified 19 (10.3%) with functional stereotypies (FS). There were 15 women and 4 men, with a mean age at onset of 38.6 ± 17.4 years.Expand
Stereotypies in adults: a systematic review.
This review focuses on the various causes of stereotypic movements in adults, and their pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment.
Psychogenic (Functional) Movement Disorders.
A multidisciplinary approach led by a neurologist, but also including psychiatrists and physical, occupational, and speech therapists, is needed for optimal outcomes in psychogenic movement disorders.
Cranial Functional Movement Disorders: A Case Series with Literature Review
Examination of large series of functional movement disorders patients where the cranial muscles were involved to determine their phenomenology and other clinical features found that CFMDs are more likely to involve facial muscles.
Speech, language and swallowing impairments in functional neurological disorder: a scoping review.
Speech, language and swallowing symptoms do occur in patients with FND, yet it is a highly under-researched area, and further research is required to create a set of positive diagnostic criteria, gather accurate data on numbers of patients and speech, language or swallowing symptoms, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct speech and language therapy involvement.
Functional Speech and Voice Disorders: Case Series and Literature Review
Functional disorders of speech and voice, subtypes of functional movement disorders, represent abnormalities in speech and voice that are thought to have an underlying psychological cause. These
Diagnosis and management of functional neurological disorder
Abstract Functional neurological disorder (FND), previously regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion, is now a rule-in diagnosis with available treatments. This represents a major step toward
European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders—version 2.0. Part I: assessment
Recommendations are provided for scales for the assessment of tics and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with TS not only in routine clinical practice, but also in the context of clinical research.


Tardive stereotypy and other movement disorders in tardive dyskinesias
It is concluded that stereotypy can be readily differentiated from other hyperkinetic movement disorders and that its presence in an adult is highly suggestive of prior exposure to DRBD.
Distinguishing features of psychogenic (functional) versus organic hemifacial spasm
Patients with psychogenic HFS were significantly younger and had more frequently tonic muscle contractions, bilateral asynchronous hemifacial involvement, isolated lower facial involvement, downward deviation of the mouth’s angle, and lack of the “other Babinski sign” compared to those with organic HFS.
Recognizing Uncommon Presentations of Psychogenic (Functional) Movement Disorders
The frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are reviewed.
Speech and voice disorders in patients with psychogenic movement disorders
Stuttering was the most common speech abnormality and no differences in gender, age at onset, and distribution of PMDs were observed between patients with and without PSVD.
An Update on Tardive Dyskinesia: From Phenomenology to Treatment
The most current information is provided on the history, nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, phenomenology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of tardive dyskinesia.
Functional facial and tongue movement disorders.
Psychogenic Facial Movement Disorders: Clinical Features and Associated Conditions
  • A. Fasano, A. Valadas, +9 authors A. Espay
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2012
The facial phenotype of psychogenic movement disorders has not been fully characterized, and there were fluctuations in severity and spontaneous exacerbations and remissions, with at least 1 precipitating psychological stress or trauma identified in 57.4%.
Drug-Induced Dyskinesia, Part 2: Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia
Treatment strategies include slow taper of the offending agent and use of dopamine-depleting agents like tetrabenazine, while deep brain stimulation is usually reserved for patients with disabling motor fluctuations, LID, and for severe TS that cannot be managed medically.
Psychogenic movement disorders.
Stereotypies: A critical appraisal and suggestion of a clinically useful definition
It is argued that the current use of the term stereotypy falls well short of the precision needed for either clinical or academic use, and fails both to provide a clinically useful diagnostic category and to define a set of conditions that are linked pathophysiologically.