Function and evolution of nodulation genes in legumes

@article{Yokota2011FunctionAE,
  title={Function and evolution of nodulation genes in legumes},
  author={Keisuke Yokota and Makoto T Hayashi},
  journal={Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences},
  year={2011},
  volume={68},
  pages={1341-1351}
}
Root nodule (RN) symbiosis has a unique feature in which symbiotic bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen. The symbiosis is established with a limited species of land plants, including legumes. How RN symbiosis evolved is still a mystery, but recent findings on legumes genes that are necessary for RN symbiosis may give us a clue. 

Transcriptional networks leading to symbiotic nodule organogenesis.

A transcription factor NIN is the executor of root nodule development

In order to confer symbiotic nitrogen fixation on non-legumes such as rice, it is crucial to identify symbiotic genes that are specific to legumes. We found that a transcription factor NIN, which is

The Symbiosome: Legume and Rhizobia Co-evolution toward a Nitrogen-Fixing Organelle?

The current understanding of the symbiosome suggests that it might be considered a nitrogen-fixing link in organelle evolution and that the distinct types of legume symbiosomes could represent different evolutionary stages toward the generation of a nitrogen -fixing organelle.

Heart of Endosymbioses: Transcriptomics Reveals a Conserved Genetic Program among Arbuscular Mycorrhizal, Actinorhizal and Legume-Rhizobial Symbioses

A comparative transcriptomics approach was used to identify genes involved in establishing these 3 endosymbioses and their functioning and confirmed the existence of this core set of genes in accordance with the proposed recycling of ancient AM genes for new functions related to nodulation in legumes and actinorhizal plants.

The Casuarina NIN gene is transcriptionally activated throughout Frankia root infection as well as in response to bacterial diffusible signals.

The characterization of CgNIN, a NIN gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca is reported, indicating that elements specifically required for nodulation include NIN and possibly related gene networks derived from the nitrate signalling pathways.

The evolutionary events necessary for the emergence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes may involve a loss of nitrate responsiveness of the NIN transcription factor

It is speculated that the loss of the nitrate-responsiveness of NIN may be one of the evolutionary events necessary for the emergence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes.

NODULE INCEPTION Directly Targets NF-Y Subunit Genes to Regulate Essential Processes of Root Nodule Development in Lotus japonicus

It is proposed that the evolution of root nodules in legume plants was associated with changes in the function of NIN, which has acquired functions that allow it to divert pathways involved in the regulation of cell division to root nodule organogenesis.

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