Fulminant Type 1 diabetes in a pregnant woman as an initial manifestation of the insulin autoimmune syndrome.


Fulminant Type 1 diabetes is a subtype of Type 1 diabetes characterized by (1) abrupt onset of diabetes, (2) very short duration of hyperglycaemia with mildly elevated HbA(1c) (< 69 mmol/mol, 8.5%), (3) rapid progression to diabetic ketoacidosis, (4) very low C-peptide level, and (5) often associated with elevated serum pancreatic enzymes, and absence of diabetes-related autoantibodies. We encountered a case of fulminant Type 1 diabetes that developed with an initial manifestation of the insulin autoimmune syndrome and rapidly progressed to diabetic ketoacidosis during pregnancy. A 31-year-old Korean woman presented with recurrent sudden onset of sweating and change of consciousness during sleep at 19 weeks gestation. During a 72-h fasting test, hypoglycaemia (1.72 mmol/l) occurred at 4 h after the start of the test. At that time, there was a high insulin level (370.2 μU/ml), a paradoxically low C-peptide level (0.01 nmol/l) and a positive insulin autoantibody test. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed postprandial hyperglycaemia. She was initially diagnosed as the insulin autoimmune syndrome. On the day 5 of admission, she developed diabetic ketoacidosis. Her HbA(1c) was 62 mmol/mol (7.8%). The rapid progression of diabetic ketoacidosis altered the diagnosis to fulminant Type 1 diabetes. This case differed from typical fulminant Type 1 diabetes because it presented with hypoglycaemia, and positive insulin and anti-phospholipid antibody tests. Her HLA typing was HLA-DQA1*0302, 0501, HLA-DRB1*0301 (DR3), 0901(DR9). Her glucose level was subsequently very well controlled with multiple insulin injections and she successfully delivered a healthy baby.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03623.x

Cite this paper

@article{Kim2012FulminantT1, title={Fulminant Type 1 diabetes in a pregnant woman as an initial manifestation of the insulin autoimmune syndrome.}, author={H S Kim and T T Lee and E Y Kim and Jin Hwa Choi and S Y Kim and Y C Hwang and J-H Kang and Kook-Jin Ahn and Hoyoung Chung and I S Jeong}, journal={Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association}, year={2012}, volume={29 10}, pages={1335-8} }