Fullerenes from the Geological Environment

@article{Buseck1992FullerenesFT,
  title={Fullerenes from the Geological Environment},
  author={Peter R. Buseck and Semeon J. Tsipursky and Robert L. Hettich},
  journal={Science},
  year={1992},
  volume={257},
  pages={215 - 217}
}
By means of high-resoluton transmission electron microscopy, both C60 and C70 fullerenes have been found in a, carbon-rich Precambrian rock from Russia The fullerenes were confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry with both laser desorption and thermal desorption/electron-capture methods to verify that the fullerenes were indeed present in the geological sample and were not generated by the laser ionization event. The mass spectra were measured under conditions sufficient to resolve the… 

Fullerenes in the 1.85-billion-year-old Sudbury impact structure.

The oxidation of the fullerenes during the 1.85 billion years of exposure was apparently prevented by the presence of sulfur in the form of sulfide-silicate complexes associated with the fulrerenes.

Fullerenes from a Fulgurite

Peaks at 720 and 840 atomic mass units were identified by mass spectrometry in a sample extracted from a fulgurite, which is a glassy rock that forms where lightning strikes the ground. The peaks are

Geological fullerenes: review and analysis

The search for fullerenes in rocks from the Ries impact crater

Abstract— Since their discovery, fullerenes have been reported from various geological environments. One group of these findings has been related to bolide impacts, e.g., the Sudbury crater and the

Search for Fullerenes in Geological Carbonaceous Samples Altered by Experimental Lightning

Abstract Three rocks with different organic carbon content, graptolitic shale, metamorphosed black schist and bituminous coal, have been subjected to high‐energy electric impulses of current

Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Layer

High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C60, which may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era.

Fullerenes in the fossil of dinosaur egg

Abstract By means of laser desorption post-ionization time-of flight mass specrometry (TOF) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), fullerene C60 have been found in a fossil of dinosaur egg

Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy to detect fullerenes in geological materials.

Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary

Fullerenes C60 and C70 were found in the thin clay seams of nine worldwide locations of the geologic boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. These clays are also rich in soot. One

Fullerenes: an extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases.

It is determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerene cage structure and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 32 REFERENCES

Phase Transformations in Carbon Fullerenes at High Shock Pressures

The fast transformation to graphite is proposed to occur by π-electron rehybridization which initiates breakup of the ball structure and formation of the graphite structure at high density.

Fullerenes C60 and C70 in flames

Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of C60 and C70 in yields and ratios that depend on temperature, pressure, carbon/oxygen ratio and residence time in the flame, and control of these conditions allows optimal yields.

NEW EVIDENCE OF THE ORIGIN OF PRE-CAMBRIAN CARBON

An investigation was carried out concerning the origin of carbon in the following pre-Cambrian materials from Finland: graphite, carbon-bearing schists, carbonaceous accumulations in phyllites

C60: Buckminsterfullerene

During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser

Solid C60: a new form of carbon

A new form of pure, solid carbon has been synthesized consisting of a somewhat disordered hexagonal close packing of soccer-ball-shaped C60 molecules. Infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction studies

Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams

Laser vaporization of a substrate within the throat of a pulsed nozzle is used to generate a supersonic beam of carbon clusters. The neutral cluster beam is probed downstream by UV laser