Fullerenes from the Geological Environment

  title={Fullerenes from the Geological Environment},
  author={Peter R. Buseck and Semeon J. Tsipursky and Robert L. Hettich},
  pages={215 - 217}
By means of high-resoluton transmission electron microscopy, both C60 and C70 fullerenes have been found in a, carbon-rich Precambrian rock from Russia The fullerenes were confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry with both laser desorption and thermal desorption/electron-capture methods to verify that the fullerenes were indeed present in the geological sample and were not generated by the laser ionization event. The mass spectra were measured under conditions sufficient to resolve the… 
Fullerenes in the 1.85-billion-year-old Sudbury impact structure.
The oxidation of the fullerenes during the 1.85 billion years of exposure was apparently prevented by the presence of sulfur in the form of sulfide-silicate complexes associated with the fulrerenes.
Fullerenes from a Fulgurite
Peaks at 720 and 840 atomic mass units were identified by mass spectrometry in a sample extracted from a fulgurite, which is a glassy rock that forms where lightning strikes the ground. The peaks are
The search for fullerenes in rocks from the Ries impact crater
Abstract— Since their discovery, fullerenes have been reported from various geological environments. One group of these findings has been related to bolide impacts, e.g., the Sudbury crater and the
Search for Fullerenes in Geological Carbonaceous Samples Altered by Experimental Lightning
Abstract Three rocks with different organic carbon content, graptolitic shale, metamorphosed black schist and bituminous coal, have been subjected to high‐energy electric impulses of current
Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Layer
High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C60, which may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era.
Fullerenes in the fossil of dinosaur egg
Abstract By means of laser desorption post-ionization time-of flight mass specrometry (TOF) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), fullerene C60 have been found in a fossil of dinosaur egg
Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy to detect fullerenes in geological materials.
Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary
Fullerenes C60 and C70 were found in the thin clay seams of nine worldwide locations of the geologic boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. These clays are also rich in soot. One
Testing for fullerenes in geologic materials: Oklo carbonaceous substances, Karelian shungites, Sudbury Black Tuff: Comment and Reply
The presence of low concentrations of fullerenes has been reported from numerous terrestrial and meteoritic sources ([Buseck, 2002][1]). In a recent paper, [Mossman et al. (2003)][2] present mass
Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Fullerenes
Abstract This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from


Fullerenes C60 and C70 in flames
Spectroscopic studies reveal the presence of C60 and C70 in yields and ratios that depend on temperature, pressure, carbon/oxygen ratio and residence time in the flame, and control of these conditions allows optimal yields.
An investigation was carried out concerning the origin of carbon in the following pre-Cambrian materials from Finland: graphite, carbon-bearing schists, carbonaceous accumulations in phyllites
C60: Buckminsterfullerene
During experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which long-chain carbon molecules are formed in interstellar space and circumstellar shells1, graphite has been vaporized by laser
Production and characterization of supersonic carbon cluster beams
Laser vaporization of a substrate within the throat of a pulsed nozzle is used to generate a supersonic beam of carbon clusters. The neutral cluster beam is probed downstream by UV laser
Laser‐induced molecular ion formation and gas‐phase ion formation from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, coals and coal products detected by Fourier transform mass spectrometry
The results from the laser-ablation Fourier transform mass spectrometric examination of a variety of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), coals and other geochemically related materials are presented.
Space, Stars, C60, and Soot
The intriguing revelation that 12 pentagonal "defects" convert a planar hexagonal array of any size into a quasi-icosahedral cage explains why some intrinsically planar materials form quasi-crystalline particles, as appears to occur in the case of soot.