Fullerenes from the Geological Environment

@article{Buseck1992FullerenesFT,
  title={Fullerenes from the Geological Environment},
  author={Peter R. Buseck and Semeon J. Tsipursky and Robert L. Hettich},
  journal={Science},
  year={1992},
  volume={257},
  pages={215 - 217}
}
By means of high-resoluton transmission electron microscopy, both C60 and C70 fullerenes have been found in a, carbon-rich Precambrian rock from Russia The fullerenes were confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry with both laser desorption and thermal desorption/electron-capture methods to verify that the fullerenes were indeed present in the geological sample and were not generated by the laser ionization event. The mass spectra were measured under conditions sufficient to resolve the… 
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Peaks at 720 and 840 atomic mass units were identified by mass spectrometry in a sample extracted from a fulgurite, which is a glassy rock that forms where lightning strikes the ground. The peaks are
The search for fullerenes in rocks from the Ries impact crater
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Search for Fullerenes in Geological Carbonaceous Samples Altered by Experimental Lightning
Abstract Three rocks with different organic carbon content, graptolitic shale, metamorphosed black schist and bituminous coal, have been subjected to high‐energy electric impulses of current
Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Layer
TLDR
High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis of toluene extracts of samples from two Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites in New Zealand has revealed the presence of C60, which may have originated in the extensive wildfires that were associated with the cataclysmic impact event that terminated the Mezozoic era.
Fullerenes in the fossil of dinosaur egg
Abstract By means of laser desorption post-ionization time-of flight mass specrometry (TOF) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), fullerene C60 have been found in a fossil of dinosaur egg
Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy to detect fullerenes in geological materials.
Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary
Fullerenes C60 and C70 were found in the thin clay seams of nine worldwide locations of the geologic boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. These clays are also rich in soot. One
Testing for fullerenes in geologic materials: Oklo carbonaceous substances, Karelian shungites, Sudbury Black Tuff: Comment and Reply
The presence of low concentrations of fullerenes has been reported from numerous terrestrial and meteoritic sources ([Buseck, 2002][1]). In a recent paper, [Mossman et al. (2003)][2] present mass
Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Fullerenes
Abstract This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from
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