Development of a Double Antibody Sandwich ELISA for West Nile Virus Detection Using Monoclonal Antibodies against Non-Structural Protein 1
Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flavivirus family, has four distinct serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV1], DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4) that require differentiation for the effective prevention of morbid disease. Early and rapid differentiation between flaviviruses remains challenging. Full assays combining four individual, serotype-specific and one group-specific nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DENV NS1 were developed and validated. The sensitivities and specificities of the full NS1 ELISAs were evaluated with viral cultures and dengue acute-phase sera. Four serotype-specific NS1 ELISAs displayed high specificities for the detection and differentiation of appropriate serotypes. The group-specific NS1 ELISA was broadly reactive with the four dengue virus serotypes. None of the NS1 ELISAs displayed cross-reactivity with the other flaviviruses or samples from febrile patients with non-dengue virus infections. The full serotype- and group-specific MAb-based NS1 capture ELISAs may provide tools for the early detection and typing of dengue infection, which is preferable to reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for the rapid differential diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the field.