OBJECTIVE To clone the full-length cDNA of a novel gene related to familial acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and to demonstrate its molecular mechanisms on the gene level. METHODS Bone marrow specimen was obtained from a patient of familial AML, male, aged 11, and peripheral blood samples were obtained from 23 AML patients outside this family, 9 normal persons in this family, and 23 normal persons outside this family. Based on the EST sequence zywb87 (GenBank accession number: CV973101) from a subtractive cDNA library of differential expressed genes constructed in familial AML, SMART-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (SMART-RACE) was applied to clone the full-length cDNA of the novel gene, and bioinformatics was used to predict its biological function, the expression of the novel gene in AML was detected by One-Step RT-PCR. RESULTS A full-length cDNA of 2313 bp was obtained from the bone marrow specimen of the familial AML patient with complete open reading frame (ORF) of 249 bp. Localized on 1q31.3 of human chromosome, it coded a 82-amino acid polypeptide with signal peptide, leucine-rich repeat (LRR_SD22), and intrinsic disorder functional domain. BLAST analysis confirmed this gene as a novel gene designated with the accession number: (nucleotide) EF413001 and (protein) ABN58747 by GenBank and was named as Homo sapiens familial acute myelogenous leukemia related factor (FAMLF). The FAMLF expression level of the AML patients outside this family was (2.61 +/- 0.66), significantly higher than that of the normal persons outside this family (0.97 +/- 0.51, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION A full-length cDNA of the novel gene FAMLF related to familial AML has been obtained. The FAMLF gene is expressed highly in AML and may present biological function on the progress of AML.