Full Count

  title={Full Count},
  author={Judith Grant Long},
  journal={Journal of Sports Economics},
  pages={119 - 143}
Governments pay far more to participate in the development of major league sports facilities than is commonly understood due to the routine omission of public subsidies for land and infrastructure, and the ongoing costs of operations, capital improvements, municipal services, and foregone property taxes. Adjusting for these omissions increases the average public subsidy by $50 million per facility to a total of $177 million, representing a 40% increase over the industry-reported average of $126… 
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Significant empirical research has highlighted the existence of pork barrel politics. This is where public expenditure is targeted at particular regions based on the logic of collective action:
Loss aversion, team relocations, and major league expansion.
Professional sports teams receive large public subsidies for new facility construction. Empirical research suggests that these subsidies cannot be justified by tangible or intangible economic
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Using public choice analysis, we determine how government subsidies affect location and pricing decisions of sports teams. We explain how voter referendums can create suboptimal outcomes for local
The Impact of a Professional Sports Franchise on County Employment and Wages
Stadium boosters have long used the promise of economic development as a means to gain public support for financing local sports teams. Past research has shown little or no impact on employment or
Bundling the procurement of sports infrastructure projects: How neither public nor private actors really benefit
Public-private partnerships for infrastructure development are often conceived as puzzling governance tools. A peculiar case in Belgium has been the procurement of multiple similar projects to single
Newspaper Framing and Stadium Subsidization
Public subsidies continue to be used to support the construction of stadium facilities for major league sports teams in North America. Within this context, the local newspaper, as a beneficiary of
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We develop a monopolistic competition model of urban service consumption and production that includes spatial structure and property values. The model shows that the introduction of a new


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Since the 1950s, taxpayers have been the primary investors in stadia built for the use of privately-owned professional sports teams. Team owners have argued that sports facilities boost local
Professional Sports as Catalysts for Metropolitan Economic Development
ABSTRACT:Cities throughout the United States are facing an unprecedented number of threats from the professional sport teams they host to build new playing facilities or lose the franchise. The
Cross-subsidization, Incentives, and Outcomes in Professional Team Sports Leagues
Professional team sports leagues provide insight into the problems facing the management of functioning cartels. This paper provides an analysis of the incentives and outcomes inherent in the
The Impact of Stadium and Professional Sports on Metropolitan Area Development
More and more cities are being encouraged to subsidize sports stadiums as an economic development tool. In this paper regression analysis using census data on nine different metropolitan areas is
Sports Stadiums and Area Development: A Critical Review
Should local governments subsidize the construction and operation of sports stadiums? This is being debated in cities throughout North America, and several factors have conspired to elevate this
The Economics and Politics of Sports Facilities
Introduction: Professional Sports, Economic Development and Public Policy History of Stadium Politics Historical Perspective on Sports and Public Policy by Steven Reiss Sports and Economics The
Playing the Field: Why Sports Teams Move and Cities Fight to Keep Them
Can a sports franchise "blackmail" a city into getting what it wants-a new stadium, say, or favorable leasing terms-by threatening to relocate? In 1982, the owners of the Chicago White Sox pledged to
Home Team: Professional Sports and the American Metropolis
This chapter discusses places and team names in the political arena, as well as private games and Public Stakes, in the context of a city-state.
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