Frostbite injury: an unknown risk when using nitrous oxide as a party drug

@article{Quax2020FrostbiteIA,
  title={Frostbite injury: an unknown risk when using nitrous oxide as a party drug},
  author={Marcel Libertus Johannes Quax and Tim J. van der Steenhoven and Martinus Wilhelmus Gerardus Antonius Bronkhorst and Benjamin Lucas Emmink},
  journal={Acta Chirurgica Belgica},
  year={2020},
  volume={122},
  pages={140 - 143}
}
Abstract In recent years nitrous oxide has become a popular party drug. Large cylinders filled with nitrous oxide are used to fill balloons for recreational use. We present two patients with severe third-degree cold burns on their thighs after clamping a large cylinder between their legs while filling balloons. During filling, large amounts of nitrous oxide are inhaled, which causes the pain to be numbed. As nitrous oxide is discharged from the cylinder, the cylinder becomes ice cold. Due to… 
Burn injury from filling balloons with nitrous oxide
TLDR
A female teenager who sustainedNitrous oxide burns to the medial aspect of both thighs from contact with a nitrous oxide canister being used to fill balloons is presented, the first reported case outside of the Netherlands and in a child.
Whipping up public policy discussion: Australia's problem with recreational nitrous oxide use
TLDR
Nerve conduction and peripheral neurophysiology clinics see an increasing number of young patients encountered with subacute, peripheral sensorimotor deficits with or without neuropsychiatric complications due to excessive inhaled nitrous oxide (N2O) use.
Problematic Use of Nitrous Oxide by Young Moroccan–Dutch Adults
TLDR
The taboo culture surrounding substance use—mistrust, shame and macho culture—frustrates timely medical/psychological treatment of Moroccan–Dutch problematic nitrous oxide users and it is recommended to use influencers in media campaigns with the aim to decrease the risks of heavy nitrousoxide use and improve treatment access.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES
Life-Threatening Airway Obstruction from Nitrous Oxide Induced Frostbite of the Oral Cavity
TLDR
A case of a life-threatening pharyngeal swelling from severe frostbite of the oral cavity after accidental exposure to liquid nitrous oxide is described.
Recreational nitrous oxide use: Prevalence and risks.
Frostbite: pathogenesis and treatment.
TLDR
Although the surgical management of frostbite involves delayed debridement 1 to 3 months after demarcation, recent improvements in radiologic assessment of tissue viability have led to the possibility of earlier surgical intervention.
Skin grafting for the treatment of chronic leg ulcers – a systematic review in evidence‐based medicine
TLDR
The main findings indicate that autologous split‐thickness skin grafting still remains the gold standard in terms of safety and efficacy for chronic leg ulcers and skin tissue engineering, also supported by genetic manipulation, is quickly expanding and, in the near future, may provide even better outcomes in the area of treatments for long‐lasting chronic wounds.
Environmental cold-induced injury.
  • G. Jurkovich
  • Medicine
    The Surgical clinics of North America
  • 2007
Soft tissue reconstruction with skin grafting.
Nitrous oxide abuse
Dental damage and laryngoscopy.
Frostbite: general observations and report of cases treated by hyperbaric oxygen.
    ...
    ...