Frostbite: prevention and initial management.

@article{Zafren2013FrostbitePA,
  title={Frostbite: prevention and initial management.},
  author={Ken Zafren},
  journal={High altitude medicine \& biology},
  year={2013},
  volume={14 1},
  pages={
          9-12
        }
}
  • K. Zafren
  • Published 28 March 2013
  • Medicine
  • High altitude medicine & biology
Frostbite is a local freezing injury that can cause tissue loss. Historically, it has been a disease of wars, but it is a hazard for anyone who ventures outdoors in cold weather. Frozen tissue is damaged both during freezing and rewarming. Frozen tissue is numb. Rewarming causes hyperemia and is often painful. Blisters and edema develop after rewarming. Hard eschar may form with healthy tissue deep to the eschar. Frostbite can be classified as superficial, without permanent tissue loss, or deep… Expand
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