From ugly duckling to swan? Japanese and American beliefs about the stability and origins of traits.

@article{Lockhart2009FromUD,
  title={From ugly duckling to swan? Japanese and American beliefs about the stability and origins of traits.},
  author={Kristi Lockhart and Nobuko Nakashima and Kayoko Inagaki and Frank C. Keil},
  journal={Cognitive development},
  year={2009},
  volume={23 1},
  pages={155-179}
}
Two studies compared the development of beliefs about the stability and origins of physical and psychological traits in Japan and the United States in three age groups: 5-6-year-olds, 8-10-year-olds, and college students. The youngest children in both cultures were the most optimistic about negative traits changing in a positive direction over development and being maintained over the aging period. The belief that individual differences in traits are inborn increased with age, and in all age… CONTINUE READING
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