From transient infection to chronic disease

  title={From transient infection to chronic disease},
  author={Carl F. Nathan},
  pages={161 - 161}
  • C. Nathan
  • Published 9 October 2015
  • Medicine
  • Science
Can some infections “scar” the immune system? An infection is considered to be resolved when the causative microbe has been cleared and host structure and function return to normal—except, perhaps, for a scar in the affected tissue. In a recent study, da Fonseca et al. (1) argue that some resolved infections leave scars of another sort—longlasting immune dysfunction. The authors propose that “immunologic scarring” by resolved infections may account for a wide range of chronic diseases. 

Human genetic basis of interindividual variability in the course of infection

  • J. Casanova
  • Medicine, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2015
The history of the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the turn of the 19th century to the second half of the 20th century is reviewed, providing the background information required to understand and appreciate the more recently described monogenic forms of resistance or predisposition to specific infections discussed in a second paper in this issue.

The influence of the cytotoxic necrotizing factor toxin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on pathogenesis

Evidence is provided that CNFY is a crucial regulator of Y. pseudotuberculosis pathogenesis, as it modulates inflammation and immune responses by enhancing the translocation of Yersinia effector proteins into host cells and increased early bacterial dissemination to systemic tissues, which was dependent on the inflammasome and IL-1 cytokines.

Nonhuman Primate Model Use in Understanding Infectious Diseases

The notable attributes of utility and the host pathogenicity interaction helps in the development of nonhuman primate models for further development for a great research area in biomedical research.

Review of the clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in newborn infants

The objective of this study was to establish a central line of inquiry into the determinants of respiratory virus infections in neonates during birth hospitalisation and the mechanisms behind their association with adverse long‐term consequences.

The limitations of opportunistic epidemiology, pseudopod epidemiology

  • L. Kuller
  • Biology, Medicine
    European Journal of Epidemiology
  • 2016
Whether large longitudinal studies have dominated epidemiology research, especially long incubation period chronic diseases, have enhanced public health or generated a large number of studies of little impact is addressed.

Spectrum of Microbial Sequences and a Bacterial Cell Wall Antigen in Primary Demyelination Brain Specimens Obtained from Living Patients

RNA sequencing data shows that demyelinating brain lesions are associated with the presence of microbial RNA sequences and bacterial antigen, which suggests that MS is triggered by the existence of a diverse set of microbes within a lesion.

The incidence of separation events of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a flow displacement chamber: examining shear forces overcoming Flo11p mediated adhesion to an inert substrate

By analyzing the processes involved in the initial step in biofilm formation, deposition and adhesion, the authors can make advances in designing surfaces to prevent and inhibit biofilm growth in medical in-dwellings and catheters.

Évolution de la virulence et infections multiples

Sur l'exemple des infections chroniques causees par des micro-parasites transmis horizontalement, nous employons les approches propres aux systemes dynamiques et aux probabilites pour emboiter cette suite of dynamiques afin d'en explorer les consequences evolutives.



Persistent activation of an innate immune response translates respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease

It is found that this type of disease arises independently of an adaptive immune response and is driven instead by interleukin-13 produced by macrophages that have been stimulated by CD1d-dependent T cell receptor–invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells.

Viral induction of a chronic asthma phenotype and genetic segregation from the acute response.

It is shown that a single paramyxoviral infection of mice not only produces acute bronchiolitis, but also triggers a chronic response with airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia lasting at least a year after complete viral clearance.

Epidemic Inflammation: Pondering Obesity

  • C. Nathan
  • Medicine, Biology
    Molecular medicine
  • 2008
Evidence that reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates (ROI and RNI) help drive chronic inflammation in the obese is reviewed and this is proposed to be a maladaptive instance of the authors' evolved dependence on ROI andRNI for both homeostatic signaling and host defense.