From the lumen to the laparoscope.

Throughout the ages, the issues that have defined the management of disease processes have been particularly exemplified in the gastrointestinal tract. The use of gas lamps and candles with reflectors by Bozzini, Segalas, Cruise, and Fisher (19th century) allowed for some ingress into both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Von Mikulicz, Leiter… (More)