From the Atmosphere to the Mitochondrion: The Oxygen Cascade

  title={From the Atmosphere to the Mitochondrion: The Oxygen Cascade},
  author={George P. Biro},
This chapter will provide a basic summary of the fundamentals whereby oxygen is delivered from the atmosphere to its ultimate site of utilization, the mitochondria, and the means whereby this delivery is regulated and optimized for efficiency and the “survival” of the organism as a whole. This occurs in four sequential steps comprising 1. convective mass transport exchange of air into and out of the alveolar spaces; 2. diffusive exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveoli and blood in… 
Effects of variable oxygen regimes on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species production in a marine bivalve, Mya arenaria
It is indicated that long-term cyclic hypoxia has a stronger impact on the mitochondria of M. arenaria than chronic Hypoxia and might lead to impaired ATP synthesis, higher costs of mitochondrial maintenance and oxidative stress.
Imaging of oxygen gradients in giant umbrella cells: an ex vivo PLIM study.
Ex vivo and in vivo studies on intracellular and tissue O2 gradients using confocal imaging can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating O2-dependent (patho)physiological processes in the bladder and other tissues.
It was found that 20 min of normobaric hypoxic breathing evoked a substantial reduction in spleen volume showing that hypoxia is an important trigger for spleen contraction, and hypercapnia’s likely role as a trigger in addition to Hypoxia was demonstrated.
The Influence of Respiratory Muscle Work on Locomotor and Respiratory Muscle Oxygenation Trends in Repeated-Sprint Exercise
The findings of this thesis do not support the work of breathing as being a limiting factor in locomotor muscle oxygenation in normoxia and suggest preferential blood flow distribution to the respiratory muscle to compensate for arterial hypoxemia, which may explain in part compromise locomotor O2 delivery.
Monitoring of Oxygenation and Ventilation
Effect of net gas volume changes on alveolar and arterial gas partial pressures in the presence of ventilation-perfusion mismatch.
The alveolar-arterial gradient for nitrogen in the steady-state breathing air depends not only on the existence of a distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios in the lung but also on the presence of a net change in gas volume and is opposite in direction to the direction of net gas volume uptake.
Challenges for successful implantation of biofuel cells.


Oxygen transport-2. Tissue hypoxia.
During critical illness tissue hypoxia is often caused by capillary microthrombosis after endothelial damage and neutrophil activation rather than by arterial hypoxaemia, and individual tissue oxygenation needs to be measured directly to assess and manage organ Hypoxia correctly.
Oxygen transport—1. Basic principles
An understanding of the key steps in oxygen transport within the body is essential to avoid tissue hypoxia.
Hypoxia-induced changes in pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance: Where is the O2 sensor?
S-nitrosylation: integrator of cardiovascular performance and oxygen delivery.
Through a bird's-eye view of S-nitrosylation in the cardiovascular system, this work provides a conceptual framework that may be broadly applicable to the functioning of other cellular systems and physiological processes and that illuminates new therapeutic promise in cardiovascular medicine.
The pulmonary physician and critical care. 6. Oxygen transport: the relation between oxygen delivery and consumption.
Current ideas about the relation between DO2 and Vo2, the physiological mechanisms controlling regional lo2, and their relevance to critical illness and currently used therapeutic interventions are reviewed.
Intracellular diffusion gradients of O2 and ATP.
  • D. P. Jones
  • Biology
    The American journal of physiology
  • 1986
Results from this approach indicate that substantial intracellular concentration gradients occur under some O2- and ATP-limited conditions and microheterogeneity of metabolite concentrations can occur in cells without membranal compartmentation and may be important in determining the rates of various high-flux processes.
From system to organ to cell: oxygenation and perfusion measurement in anesthesia and critical care
The basic physiology of oxygen uptake and delivery to tissues as well as the options to monitor determinants of oxygenation at different stages from the alveolus to the cell are reviewed.
Optimization of the oxygen transport system.
Mitochondrial metabolic function assessed in vivo and in vitro
  • I. Lanza, K. Nair
  • Biology
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care
  • 2010
High-resolution respirometry has emerged as a powerful tool for in-vitro measurements of mitochondrial function in isolated mitochondria and permeabilized fibers and Mechanistic data provided by these methods is further complimented by in- vivo assessment using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscope and the translational rate of gene transcripts.