From single extracellular unit recording in experimental and human Parkinsonism to the development of a functional concept of the role played by the basal ganglia in motor control

@article{Boraud2002FromSE,
  title={From single extracellular unit recording in experimental and human Parkinsonism to the development of a functional concept of the role played by the basal ganglia in motor control},
  author={Thomas Boraud and Erwan B{\'e}zard and Bernard H. Bioulac and Christian Gross},
  journal={Progress in Neurobiology},
  year={2002},
  volume={66},
  pages={265-283}
}

Neuronal activity of the human subthalamic nucleus in the parkinsonian and nonparkinsonian state.

TLDR
A significant increase in the mean firing rate of STN neurons in PD and a relatively larger fraction of neurons exhibiting burstlike activity compared with ET is found, which support current concepts of abnormal motor loop oscillations in Parkinson's disease.

Oscillations in the basal ganglia under normal conditions and in movement disorders

TLDR
The most significant finding is that in Parkinson's disease synchronized oscillatory activity in the 10‐ to 35‐Hz band (often termed “β‐band”) is prevalent in the basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits, and that such activity can be reduced by dopaminergic treatments.

Thalamic Neuronal Activity in Dopamine-Depleted Primates: Evidence for a Loss of Functional Segregation within Basal Ganglia Circuits

TLDR
The major dysfunction after dopamine depletion appeared to be the loss of functional segregation within cortico-BG circuits, which could also be at the heart of parkinsonian pathophysiology.

Reduced Reach-Related Modulation of Motor Thalamus Neural Activity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

TLDR
It is shown for the first time that Mthal firing rate in control rats is modulated in a temporally precise pattern during reach-to-grasp movements, with a peak at the time of the reach-end and troughs just before and after it.

Mechanisms of High Frequency Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Parkinson's Disease: From Local to Distal Effects on the Basal Ganglia Network

TLDR
The abnormal glutamatergic hyperactivity observed in the STN in the parkinsonian state plays a critical role in the expression of motor symptoms and the value of the subthalamic nucleus as a treatment target is suggested.

Temporal and spatial alterations in GPi neuronal encoding might contribute to slow down movement in Parkinsonian monkeys

TLDR
Whereas muscle activity and movement are delayed in parkinsonian animals, GPi neuronal responses to movement occur earlier and are prolonged, compared with normal conditions, and Parkinsonian bradykinesia could result from an impairment of both temporal and spatial specificity of the GPi response to movement.

Oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia : is it relevant to movement disorders and their therapy?

TLDR
It is demonstrated that the basal ganglia are involved in the processing of simple limb movements in the human, by separating the effects of deep brain stimulation on pathological and physiological activities based on baseline task performance.

Globus pallidus internus neuronal activity: a comparative study of linear and non-linear features in patients with dystonia or Parkinson’s disease

TLDR
It is indicated that both linear and non-linear features of neuronal activity in the human GPi differ between PD and dystonia.

Oscillatory Activity in the Cortex, Motor Thalamus and Nucleus Reticularis Thalami in Acute TTX and Chronic 6-OHDA Dopamine-Depleted Animals

TLDR
The results confirm that abnormal cortical β band are present in the established DA deficiency and it might be considered a hallmark of PD.
...

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TLDR
Preliminary observations of altered neuronal activity in the external and internal segments of the globus pallidus (GPe, GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in an animal rendered parkinsonian with MPTP are reported.

Comparison of MPTP-induced changes in spontaneous neuronal discharge in the internal pallidal segment and in the substantia nigra pars reticulata in primates

TLDR
A comparison of the effects of parkinsonism, induced by injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), on the neuronal discharge in the GPi and SNr in primates shows that neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata is affected in parkinsonistan, but that the changes in the SNr are less pronounced.

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TLDR
In MPTP-intoxicated monkeys compared with control animals, COI mRNA expression was increased in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and in the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, i.e., the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, all of whom had been treated chronically by l-DOPA).

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TLDR
periodic oscillatory neuronal activity at low frequency, highly correlated with tremor, was detected in a large number of cells in STN and GPi after MPTP treatment and the autocorrelograms of spike trains of these neurons confirm that the periodic oscillatory activity was very stable.

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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is found that degeneration of neurons in various nuclei of the basal ganglia has been found in the brains of individuals who had marked slowness or apparent absence of voluntary movement under certain conditions (bradykinesia or akinesia), but these same individuals also may have had an involuntary phasic activity of motor units that produced an incessant resting tremor.

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TLDR
The activity of GPi neurons in response to passive limb movement in the normal and the parkinsonian monkey is studied to endorse Mink's hypothesis that the role of the basal ganglia is primarily one of focused selection.
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