From malformations to molecular mechanisms in the male: three decades of research on endocrine disrupters.

Abstract

For three decades, we have known that estrogens alter the development of the mammalian reproductive system in predictable ways. In mice exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other estrogens, the male offspring exhibit structural malformations including cryptorchidism, epididymal cysts and retained Mullerian ducts. The estrogen-associated… (More)

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