From coffee crisis and vulnerability toward empowerment ? Nicaraguan smallholders use cooperative , Fair Trade and organic coffee networks to sustain rural livelihoods


This paper analyzes the coffee crisis and response in northern Nicaragua. It proposes livelihood vulnerability and gendered empowerment as conceptual approaches to evaluate the complex interactions between farmers, local organizations and sales to Fair Trade, organic and conventional coffee networks. The findings suggest the importance of cooperatives as… (More)

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