From basics to clinical: A comprehensive review on spinal cord injury

  title={From basics to clinical: A comprehensive review on spinal cord injury},
  author={Nuno A. Silva and Nuno Sousa and Rui L Reis and Ant{\'o}nio Jos{\'e} Salgado},
  journal={Progress in Neurobiology},

Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approaches for Spinal Cord Injury

This work presents a detailed description of the physiology and anatomy of the spinal cord and the pathophysiology of SCI, and provides an overview of different molecular strategies that demonstrate promising potential in the modulation of the secondary injury events that promote neuroprotection or neuroregeneration.

Current Status of Spinal Cord Regenerative Therapies: A Review

This review discusses the present status of various cell-based therapies, which are being used for treating SCI, and the stem cell–based therapy has been proposed as a promising treatment strategy for SCI.

Stem Cells Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury: An Overview of Clinical Trials

An overview of clinical trials, recorded in clinical during 2005–2019, aimed to evaluate the use of stem cell-based therapy in SCI, show the safety and efficacy of stemcell therapy in patients with SCI.

Regenerative medicine for spinal cord injury: focus on stem cells and biomaterials

This review digs into the possibility of cell treatment to improve medical chances in SCI repair, discussing the development of biomaterials aiming to promote in situ cell delivery.

Regenerative treatment of spinal cord injury. Literature review. Part 2

This review highlights SCI epidemiological and pathogenetic problems, existing therapy, as well as promising methods of regenerative therapy, which are very promising to effectively treat SCI.

Recent Advances in the Regenerative Approaches for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Materials Perspective.

The regenerative approach using nanofibrous scaffolds is discussed with a focus on their fabrication methods and their properties that define their functionality performed to heal the neural tissue efficiently.

Application of developmental principles for spinal cord repair after injury.

Current advances in stem cell technology are highlighted in terms of refinement and precise design of the appropriate stem cell population to be transplanted not only for cell replacement but also for modulation of the host environment.

Neuroregenerative-Rehabilitative Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

Different types of cells available, routes of administration available to transplant these cells, dosages of cell and optimum time after injury at which cells should be transplanted based on world-wide literature are discussed.



Cellular Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury: The Time is Right for Clinical Trials

The field of regenerative neuroscience should not be stalled at the animal model stage, but instead the clinical trials need to be focused, safe, and ethical, backed up by a robust, translationally relevant preclinical research strategy.

Basic advances and new avenues in therapy of spinal cord injury.

Research aims to define the temporal windows of opportunity for interventions, test the safety and efficacy of delivery systems of agents and cells, and provide a better understanding of the cascades of gene expression and cell interactions both acutely and chronically after injury.

Biology of neurological recovery and functional restoration after spinal cord injury.

An examination of the anatomic basis of recovery indicates that there is a potential for both root and cord recovery, with the latter involving recovery of both gray and white matter of the cord.

A systematic review of non-invasive pharmacologic neuroprotective treatments for acute spinal cord injury.

This article systematically reviews the available pre-clinical research on neuroprotective therapies that are administered in a non-invasive manner for acute SCI and highlights the extent of investigation that has occurred, and points out gaps in knowledge that would be potentially valuable prior to human translation.

An overview of tissue engineering approaches for management of spinal cord injuries

The recent developments for therapeutic delivery of stem and non-stem cells to the site of injury, and application of cell-free and cell-seeded natural and synthetic scaffolds have been reviewed.

A systematic review of cellular transplantation therapies for spinal cord injury.

The systematic review makes it very apparent that cells derived from rodent sources have been the most extensively studied, while only 19 studies reported the transplantation of human cells, nine of which utilized bone-marrow stromal cells.

Review of experimental spinal cord injury with emphasis on the local and systemic circulatory effects.

It is the hypothesis that early treatment of these microcirculatory changes and neurogenic shock can lead to improved recovery after A.S.C.I.I, and that these local and systemic vascular effects are principal causes of the secondary injury leading to posttraumatic ischemia and infarction of the spinal cord after a primary injury.

Survival and regeneration of rubrospinal neurons 1 year after spinal cord injury

  • B. KwonJie Liu W. Tetzlaff
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
It is found that rubrospinal neurons do not die after axotomy but, rather, they undergo massive atrophy that can be reversed by applying brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the cell bodies in the midbrain.

Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients with Subacute and Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

This case study shows that the implantation of autologous bone marrow cells appears to be safe, as there have been no complications following implantation to date, but longer follow-ups are required to determine that implantation is definitively safe.

Clinical Outcomes Using Modest Intravascular Hypothermia After Acute Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

This study is the first phase 1 clinical trial on the safety and outcome with the use of endovascular hypothermia in the treatment of acute cervical SCI, and complication rates were similar to those of normothermic patients.