From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness, and animal welfare

@article{Dawkins1990FromAA,
  title={From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness, and animal welfare},
  author={Marian Stamp Dawkins},
  journal={Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
  year={1990},
  volume={13},
  pages={1 - 9}
}
  • M. Dawkins
  • Published 1 March 1990
  • Psychology
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Abstract To study animal welfare empirically we need an objective basis for deciding when an animal is suffering. Suffering includes a wide range ofunpleasant emotional states such as fear, boredom, pain, and hunger. Suffering has evolved as a mechanism for avoiding sources ofdanger and threats to fitness. Captive animals often suffer in situations in which they are prevented from doing something that they are highly motivated to do. The “price” an animal is prepared to pay to attain or to… 
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