From an Antigen‐Centered, Clonal Perspective of Immune Responses to an Organism‐Centered, Network Perspective of Autonomous Activity in a Self‐Referential Immune System

  title={From an Antigen‐Centered, Clonal Perspective of Immune Responses to an Organism‐Centered, Network Perspective of Autonomous Activity in a Self‐Referential Immune System},
  author={Ant{\'o}nio Coutinho and Luciana Forni and Dan Holmberg and Fredrik Ivars and N. F. Vaz},
  journal={Immunological Reviews},
O que vemos, não e’o que vemos, senão o que somos1 

Antigen-receptor degeneracy and immunological paradigms.

Interleukin‐2 Mastering Regulation in Cancer and Autoimmunity

Interestingly, therapeutic manipulations of immunoregulation have limited antitumor effects, although promoting collaterally infrequent autoimmune diseases, which may suggest that tumors may reinforce tolerance to protect themselves from the immune attack, a process that may involve dynamically various mechanisms including IL‐2.

Self-recognition, auto-immunity, and internal images.

The phenomena of tolerance and of the non-antigenicity of self-components seem to be more basic than those of post-infectious immunity, and one cannot conceive that they evolved from an earlier process concerned only with protection against recurrent infection.

Autonomous activation of B and T cells in antigen‐free mice

The results indicate the existence of a compartment of the immune system displaying autonomous self‐determined activity which is predominant early in life, and appears to be distinct from an antigen‐dependent compartment which is essential for the development of peripheral lymphoid organs draining sites of “natural” environmental immunization.

The Dialectical Self: Immunology’s Contribution

What is the Self? Clearly the concept is a construction dependent on the organisms studied and the scientific discipline invoked for its criterion. From an anthropocentric vantage, the immunological

The Clonal Selection Theory: what it really is and why modern challenges are misplaced

Historical insight: The clonal selection theory of antibody formation has recently been subjected to challenge from many quarters. A review of its history and that of scientific theories in general

The Vβ8 Gene Family is Preferentially Used by‘Naturally’Activated T Cells

Receptors encoded by the Vβ8 gene family detected by the monoclonal antibody F23.1 are expressed among ‘naturally’ activated T cells in normal spleen at frequencies significantly higher than in the

The immune system and lymphoma. (A commentary on the role of the immune system in experimental lymphomagenesis).

Feature common to both normal immune responsiveness and to lymphomagenesis are immunocompetence of the cognate recognition process and specificity of the target immunocyte for the permitted immunogenic or lymphomaganic stimulus.



Inhibition of homocytotropic antibody responses in adult inbred mice by previous feeding of the specific antigen.

Antigen‐independent, IgM‐induced antibody responses: requirement for “recurrent” idiotypes

In plaque inhibition tests, using IgM‐secreting hybridoma cells and anti‐idiotypic antibodies, these two IgM proteins, as well as the anti‐TNP myeloma protein MOPC 460 (IgA) were found to carry non‐cross‐reactive idiotypes.

Self and non-sense: an organism-centered approach to immunology.

An example of major histocompatibility complex‐linked control of idiotypic interactions

It is found that the responsiveness to a C57BL/6 anti‐dextran α(1 → 6) and BALB/c anti‐TNP (trinitrophenyl) monoclonal antibodies in a variety of strains is controlled by two linkage groups, namely major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and Ig‐1.

The self-nonself discrimination and the nature and acquisition of the antibody repertoire.

It is argued that the limitations of the network theory in providing a functional basis for the idiotypic network and in accounting for self-nonself discrimination can be solved by finding in a complete repertoire of antibody-combining sites the complementary structures to growth receptors on B lymphocytes, and by using these as internal mitogens in the expansion of the precursor cell pools and in the maintenance of the mature steady states.

IgM‐Induced Specific Antibody Responses: Direct Correlation between Responsiveness and Natural or Induced Recurrence of the Idiotype

The findings suggest that the ability of an antibody to induce antigen‐independent PFC responses is associated with the‘recurrency’, either natural or induced, of the antibody Id.

Homobodies: do they exist?

A distinction between homobody and anti-idiotype poses certain problems which are discussed in the light of a hypothetical experiment using avidin as the antigen.

Recognition of idiotypes in lymphocyte interactions II. Antigen‐independent cooperation between T and B lymphocytes that possess similar and complementary idiotypes

Antigen‐independent cooperation between T and B lymphocytes is demonstrated in vitro in two different experimental protocols, such that only those B cells respond that secrete antibody with the A5A idiotype.

From the point of view of an immunologist: enemies from within or friends from long ago?

  • A. Coutinho
  • Medicine
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 1982
This paper sums up the impact of 3 most stimulating days at the Institute for Virology and Immunobiology in Wurzburg upon my immunological convictions and my ignorance of retroviruses. I will first

Idiotype suppression by maternal influence

In F1 hybrid mice from the parent strains SJL and BALB/c, the authors were able to suppress the expression of anti‐Dex antibodies by immunizing prospective SJL mothers to the J558 idiotype.