From an Antigen‐Centered, Clonal Perspective of Immune Responses to an Organism‐Centered, Network Perspective of Autonomous Activity in a Self‐Referential Immune System

@article{Coutinho1984FromAA,
  title={From an Antigen‐Centered, Clonal Perspective of Immune Responses to an Organism‐Centered, Network Perspective of Autonomous Activity in a Self‐Referential Immune System},
  author={Ant{\'o}nio Coutinho and Luciana Forni and Dan Holmberg and Fredrik Ivars and N. F. Vaz},
  journal={Immunological Reviews},
  year={1984},
  volume={79}
}
O que vemos, não e’o que vemos, senão o que somos1 

Topics from this paper

The Specificity of Immunologic Observations
Context: Immunity includes cognitive concepts: the organism is thought to specifically recognize foreign materials and develop a memory of these encounters. Vaccines are thought to work by …
Antigen-receptor degeneracy and immunological paradigms.
This paper discusses some consequences of the discovery that antigen receptors are degenerate: Immune specificity, in contrast to the tenets of the clonal selection paradigm, must be generated by theExpand
The intrathecal immune response in multiple sclerosis: a different concept of 'specificity'.
TLDR
A hypothesis is presented in which the immune response in multiple sclerosis is conceived as a primary response to an auto-antigen located within the immune system which shows subsequent or simultaneous specificity for a greater number of nominal antigens. Expand
The immune network and homeostasis
TLDR
The immune target of osteopathy is the central immune system, an organisationally closed network, so that resultant changes in immune status are more properly described as compensation by the immune network to perturbation by osteopathic treatment. Expand
Interleukin‐2 Mastering Regulation in Cancer and Autoimmunity
TLDR
Interestingly, therapeutic manipulations of immunoregulation have limited antitumor effects, although promoting collaterally infrequent autoimmune diseases, which may suggest that tumors may reinforce tolerance to protect themselves from the immune attack, a process that may involve dynamically various mechanisms including IL‐2. Expand
Self-recognition, auto-immunity, and internal images.
  • M. Zanetti, D. Katz
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • 1985
TLDR
The phenomena of tolerance and of the non-antigenicity of self-components seem to be more basic than those of post-infectious immunity, and one cannot conceive that they evolved from an earlier process concerned only with protection against recurrent infection. Expand
Autonomous activation of B and T cells in antigen‐free mice
TLDR
The results indicate the existence of a compartment of the immune system displaying autonomous self‐determined activity which is predominant early in life, and appears to be distinct from an antigen‐dependent compartment which is essential for the development of peripheral lymphoid organs draining sites of “natural” environmental immunization. Expand
Autoimmunity: the Moving Boundaries Between Physiology and Pathology
TLDR
Novel strategies in basic and clinical approaches to autoimmunity are suggested, more particularly the possibility of manipulating physiological autoreactivity to compensate diseases which are not of immunological origin. Expand
The Dialectical Self: Immunology’s Contribution
What is the Self? Clearly the concept is a construction dependent on the organisms studied and the scientific discipline invoked for its criterion. From an anthropocentric vantage, the immunologicalExpand
The Clonal Selection Theory: what it really is and why modern challenges are misplaced
Historical insight: The clonal selection theory of antibody formation has recently been subjected to challenge from many quarters. A review of its history and that of scientific theories in generalExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 63 REFERENCES
Inhibition of homocytotropic antibody responses in adult inbred mice by previous feeding of the specific antigen.
Profound and prolonged states of specific immunologic tolerance were induced in adult mice of high-responder genetic background by a single exposure to moderate doses of the specific antigen byExpand
Antigen‐independent, IgM‐induced antibody responses: requirement for “recurrent” idiotypes
TLDR
In plaque inhibition tests, using IgM‐secreting hybridoma cells and anti‐idiotypic antibodies, these two IgM proteins, as well as the anti‐TNP myeloma protein MOPC 460 (IgA) were found to carry non‐cross‐reactive idiotypes. Expand
From the mechanisms of lymphocyte activation to internal activity in the immune system.
TLDR
The principles of lymphocyte activation were summarized for all three sets of immunocompetent cells and used to derive the basic mechanisms and specificities which drive internal activity in the normal immune system and which select available antibody repertoires. Expand
Self and non-sense: an organism-centered approach to immunology.
TLDR
A conceptual framework to accommodate important recent developments in immunology, looking at the immune system as a closed network of interactions which self-determines its ongoing pattern of stability and its capacities of interaction with its environment. Expand
An example of major histocompatibility complex‐linked control of idiotypic interactions
TLDR
It is found that the responsiveness to a C57BL/6 anti‐dextran α(1 → 6) and BALB/c anti‐TNP (trinitrophenyl) monoclonal antibodies in a variety of strains is controlled by two linkage groups, namely major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and Ig‐1. Expand
Immune networks. Frequencies of antibody- and idiotype-producing B cell clones in various steady states
TLDR
In limiting dilution analysis, the absolute frequencies of lipopolysaccharide-reactive B cell precursors producing anti- trinitrophenyl antibodies or the MOPC460 idiotype were studied in BALB/c mice and can only be explained by variations in the composition of the B cell compartment in the various immune states. Expand
The self-nonself discrimination and the nature and acquisition of the antibody repertoire.
TLDR
It is argued that the limitations of the network theory in providing a functional basis for the idiotypic network and in accounting for self-nonself discrimination can be solved by finding in a complete repertoire of antibody-combining sites the complementary structures to growth receptors on B lymphocytes, and by using these as internal mitogens in the expansion of the precursor cell pools and in the maintenance of the mature steady states. Expand
IgM‐Induced Specific Antibody Responses: Direct Correlation between Responsiveness and Natural or Induced Recurrence of the Idiotype
TLDR
The findings suggest that the ability of an antibody to induce antigen‐independent PFC responses is associated with the‘recurrency’, either natural or induced, of the antibody Id. Expand
Homobodies: do they exist?
TLDR
A distinction between homobody and anti-idiotype poses certain problems which are discussed in the light of a hypothetical experiment using avidin as the antigen. Expand
Recognition of idiotypes in lymphocyte interactions II. Antigen‐independent cooperation between T and B lymphocytes that possess similar and complementary idiotypes
TLDR
Antigen‐independent cooperation between T and B lymphocytes is demonstrated in vitro in two different experimental protocols, such that only those B cells respond that secrete antibody with the A5A idiotype. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...