From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment

  title={From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment},
  author={Charles E. Connerly},
  journal={Journal of Planning Education and Research},
  pages={114 - 99}
This article shows how Birminghams interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the citys 1926 racial zoning law. It shows how the construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial change. Finally, the article shows how the citys black community moved from a position of quietly protesting the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Highway to Inequity: The Disparate Impact of the Interstate Highway System on Poor and Minority Communities in American Cities

he Interstate Highway System constitutes one of the most substantial federal investments in the nation’s infrastructure and has provided innumerable benefits in transportation infrastructure. The

The Experience of Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Zoning in the United States

To date, scholars have examined two common effects of zoning that disproportionately impact racial and ethnic minorities in the United States: (1) exclusionary effects, resulting from zoning’s

The Political Consequences of Spatial Policies: How Interstate Highways Facilitated Geographic Polarization

In the postwar era, Democratic voters have become increasingly more likely than Republican voters to live in urban counties. Public policies that shape geographic space have been a major contributor

Catholics v. the Interstates: The fight to protect Catholic institutions from Interstate Highways in Birmingham, Alabama

This article analyses the conflicts between Catholic churches and Interstate Highway routing during the civil rights era, looking at three Catholic institutions in Birmingham, Alabama, that were

Race, Four Farms, and a City: Color Blindness and the Austin, TX, Urban Farm Debate

Austin, TX, was the site of a three-year debate between urban farmers and their supporters and local community activists about how to rewrite an outdated farm code. There was tremendous animosity

Highway Expansion Effects on Urban Racial Redistribution in the Post—Civil Rights Period

A limited number of historical case studies document that highway construction produced significant consequences on racial relationships and redistribution in the early and mid-20th century. Howev

Being Poor, Black, and American: The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces.

T hrough the second half of the 1990s and into the early years of the 21st century, public attention to the plight of poor black Ameri-cans seemed to wane. There was scant media attention to the

Whiteness and Urban Planning

Abstract Problem, research strategy, and findings: The ability of planning to address America’s urban problems of inequality, crime, housing, education, and segregation is hampered by a relative

Long Shadow of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from Housing Covenants of Minneapolis

This paper studies the effect of racially-restrictive covenants prevalent during the early-to-mid 20th century on present-day socioeconomic outcomes such as house prices and racial segregation.

"So That We as a Race Might Have Something Authentic to Travel By": African American Automobility and Cold-War Liberalism

This essay examines the perils, pleasures, opportunities, and political significance of African-American automobility as documented in Travelguide (Vacation and Recreation Without Humiliation) and



Redevelopment and Race: Planning a Finer City in Postwar Detroit

In the decades following World War II, professional city planners in Detroit made a concerted effort to halt the city's physical and economic decline. Their successes included an award-winning master

But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle

Birmingham served as the stage for some of the most dramatic and important moments in the history of the civil rights struggle. In this vivid narrative account, Glenn Eskew traces the evolution of

The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit

Once America's "arsenal of democracy, " Detroit has become the symbol of the American urban crisis. In this reappraisal of America's dilemma of racial and economic inequality, Thomas Sugrue asks why

Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities

Part 1 A bunch of nobodies: legacy of the big stores, vanishing crowds. Part 2 Sanitizing the city: alliances - the Pittsburgh model highway detours the urban renewal takeover tracking the money


This 3-part review and evaluatory report sets forth certain relevant information about the traditional elements of the federal highway program, the development of urban freeways in the U.S., and the

The comprehensive plan: Birmingham, Alabama

  • Prepared by Harland Bartholomew and Associates, Birmingham, AL.
  • 1961

Lala Palmer to Alabama State Highway Department