From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment

  title={From Racial Zoning to Community Empowerment},
  author={Charles E. Connerly},
  journal={Journal of Planning Education and Research},
  pages={114 - 99}
  • Charles E. Connerly
  • Published 1 December 2002
  • Sociology
  • Journal of Planning Education and Research
This article shows how Birminghams interstate highway system attempted to maintain the racial boundaries that had been established by the citys 1926 racial zoning law. It shows how the construction of interstate highways through black neighborhoods in the city led to significant population loss in those neighborhoods and is associated with an increase in neighborhood racial change. Finally, the article shows how the citys black community moved from a position of quietly protesting the… Expand

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The comprehensive plan: Birmingham, Alabama
  • Prepared by Harland Bartholomew and Associates, Birmingham, AL.
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In Chicago, some of the city's white neighborhoods recognized that the city's urban renewal programs in black neighborhoods would relocate blacks who would move into white neighborhoods (see Hirsch
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Making of the second ghetto 2d ed
  • Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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For more on the African American planning tradition in Birmingham, see
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The roots and origins of African American planning in Birmingham, Alabama
  • Urban planning and the African American community, edited by June Manning Thomas and Marsha Ritzdorf, 201-19. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • 1997