From Haeckel to Hennig: the early development of phylogenetics in German‐speaking Europe

  title={From Haeckel to Hennig: the early development of phylogenetics in German‐speaking Europe},
  author={Rainer Willmann},
An outline of the development of phylogenetic thinking and methodology in German literature published between 1862 and 1942 is presented. Central European biologists and palaeontologists of the first post‐Darwinian generation of biologists holding evolutionary views were directly stimulated by Darwin. Members of the second generation, mostly born after 1850, were largely influenced also by colleagues of the first post‐Darwinian generation, mainly by Haeckel. Among them were O. Abel, V. Franz, R… 

Adolf Naef (1883–1949), systematic morphology and phylogenetics

In spite of methodological and conceptual agreements, Naef’'s systematic morphology differed fundamentally from Hennig’s phylogenetic systematics, and offers insight into the hypothetical reality of phylogeny.

From types to individuals: Hennig’s ontology and the development of phylogenetic systematics

  • A. Hamilton
  • Philosophy
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 2012
Understanding Hennig’s ontology illuminates his responses to objections to phylogenetic systematics from both sides of the Atlantic and sheds substantial light on the extinction part of the dichotomy rule.

The Gegenbaur Transformation: a paradigm change in comparative biology

This paper traces the development of phylogenetic systematics from Gegenbaur through the work of Adolf Naef to Walter Zimmermann and Willi Hennig.

“Cladus” and clade: a taxonomic odyssey

The fate of “clade,” both as concept and word, is reconstructed here beginning with its first appearance in 1866 as “Cladus,” in Haeckel’s Generelle Morphologie , continuing up to the present.

Paraphyletic groups as natural units of biological classification

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Karl Beurlen (1901–1985), Nature Mysticism, and Aryan Paleontology

Karl Beurlen’s mature theory of evolution can indeed be understood as his own contribution to Aryan Geology and Biology, tainted as it was with National-Socialist ideology.

Adolf Naef (1883–1949): On Foundational Concepts and Principles of Systematic Morphology

An English translation of a previously unpublished typescript from Naef’s estate is presented, which Naef intended as the introduction to a textbook on Comparative Anatomy for which he was unable to find a publisher before his sudden death in 1949.

A history of entomological classification.

The classification of insects has attempted to most effectively communicate information about this hyperdiverse lineage of life and, not surprisingly, has had a considerably rich historical

The Evolution of Integrative Insect Systematics

The advances in systematics have been fuelled by new sources of data from nucleic acid sequences, theoretical advances in the nature and analysis of systematic data, development of powerful, affordable computers and new statistical tools for data analysis, integrative taxonomy, etc.

Is the tree of life the best metaphor, model, or heuristic for phylogenetics?

It is argued that a tree as a metaphor is actually pre-dated by the network as a phylogenetic metaphor, and that many of the current debates in phylogenetics are not new and actually date back to the beginnings of phylogenetic analysis.



The development of phylogenetic concepts in Hennig's early theoretical publications (1947-1966)

In this paper, we describe the development of Hennig's most important phyloge? netic concepts, which culminated in the publication of the now famous Phylogenetic Systematics in 1966, Hennig proposed

The search for a macroevolutionary theory in German paleontology

  • W. Reif
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of the History of Biology
  • 1986
Six schools of thought can be detected in the development of evolutionary theory in German paleontology between 1859 and World War II, whereby Orthogenesis and the new concepts of saltation and cyclicism were amalgamated into one theory: typostrophism.

Margins of Cladistics: Identity, Difference and Place in the Emergence of Phylogenetic Systematics 1864 – 1975

In 1929 the Russian emigre writer Vladimir Nabokov received the equivalent of US$8000 from contracts and newspaper articles. In his own words “he blew it all” on a butterfly collecting trip, his

Charles Darwin's views of classification in theory and practice.

These works, seen in fuller context and with the perspective of extensive correspondence, are consistent with the view that Darwin advocated only genealogy as the basis of classification, and that similarity was merely a tool for discovering evolutionary relationships.

Recent Advances in Methods of Phylogenetic Inference

The existence of the present conference and examination of a broader spectrum of the scattered literature show that an interest in phylogeny does exist and that indeed this is now quite an active field of study and debate.

Walter Zimmermann and the Growth of Phylogenetic Theory

In this paper, Zimmermann clearly ex? pressed many of the underlying principles of phylogenetic systematics?ideas that were later taken up by Hennig and formed the core of his theory.

Species concepts and phylogenetic theory : a debate

Monophyly, Apomorphy, and Phylogenetic Species Concepts: A Critique from "the" Phylagenetic Species Concept Perspective, by Brent D. Wheeler and Norman I. Platnick.

Haeckel, History, and Hull

Nelson and Platnick descended on Peter Ashlock, the young man who had been hired to carry on the tradition in systematic philosophy begun so many years before by Michener and Sokal at Kansas, primed with historical references designed to show that the term "monophyly" went back to Haeckel and that HaECkel had used it in Hennig's sense.

Phylogenetic Systematics

The University of Mississippi is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award certificates and baccalaureate, master’s, specialist, and doctoral

Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance

It's coming again, the new collection that this site has; the favorite systematics and biogeography cladistics and vicariance book as the choice today.