From Goal-Oriented to Constraint-Oriented Design: The Cybernetic Intersection of Design Theory and Systems Theory

  title={From Goal-Oriented to Constraint-Oriented Design: The Cybernetic Intersection of Design Theory and Systems Theory},
  author={Thomas Fischer and Laurence Richards},
ABSTRACT This article traces the changing notions of constraints in design and of systems since the mid-20th century in the intersection of design theory and systems theory. Taking a second-order cybernetic perspective, the article develops constraints as observer dependent and it analyzes conditions under which constraints tend to be beneficial or detrimental. Ethical implications of constraints in design processes are established with reference to system boundaries. Constraint-oriented design… 

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Since it ascended in the mid-twentieth century on the basis of technical and scientific advances made during World War II, cybernetics has influenced design theory and research. It was appreciated by

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A cybernetic perspective on determinability and design research

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Constructing Cybernetic Thinking, Design, and Education

  • C. Herr
  • Art
    Design Research Foundations
  • 2019
Radical constructivism can be described as the epistemological twin of second-order cybernetics. This chapter presents a close look at radical constructivism, at its implications for design, and at

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Synergy in the systemic approach to architectural performance

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The purpose of second‐order cybernetics

It is shown that (and in consequence how) the notion of goal and purpose must be radically reconsidered in second‐order Cybernetic systems.

A Ship without a Rudder

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The Value of being Unmanageable : Variety and Creativity in CyberSpace

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    Proceedings of the 17th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA)
  • 2012
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