From Flat Foot to Fat Foot: Structure, Ontogeny, Function, and Evolution of Elephant “Sixth Toes”

@article{Hutchinson2011FromFF,
  title={From Flat Foot to Fat Foot: Structure, Ontogeny, Function, and Evolution of Elephant “Sixth Toes”},
  author={J. R. Hutchinson and C. Delmer and C. Miller and T. Hildebrandt and A. A. Pitsillides and A. Boyde},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={334},
  pages={1699 - 1703}
}
  • J. R. Hutchinson, C. Delmer, +3 authors A. Boyde
  • Published 2011
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Science
  • Elephants have an extra bone in their feet that can be traced through their fossil record to reveal a transition from flat to raised feet. Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures (“predigits”), such as pandas’ “thumbs.” Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed… CONTINUE READING
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