From Analytical Engine to Electronic Digital Computer: The Contributions of Ludgate, Torres, and Bush

@article{Randell1982FromAE,
  title={From Analytical Engine to Electronic Digital Computer: The Contributions of Ludgate, Torres, and Bush},
  author={Brian Randell},
  journal={Annals of the History of Computing},
  year={1982},
  volume={4},
  pages={327-341}
}
  • B. Randell
  • Published 1 October 1982
  • Art
  • Annals of the History of Computing
This paper, based on an invited lecture given at MIT in March 1980, discusses the little-known work of Percy E. Ludgate (1883- 1922), Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (1852- 1936), and Vannevar Bush (1890- 1974). These three inventors, who apparently were unaware of one another's existence, were all directly influenced by know/edge of Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine, and each played a significant role in the history of the development of program-controlled computers. 
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