From "smart objects" to "social objects": The next evolutionary step of the internet of things

  title={From "smart objects" to "social objects": The next evolutionary step of the internet of things},
  author={Luigi Atzori and Antonio Iera and Giacomo Morabito},
  journal={IEEE Communications Magazine},
Social networking concepts have been applied to several communication network settings, which span from delay-tolerant to peer-to-peer networks. More recently, one can observe a flourish of proposals aimed at giving social-like capabilities to the objects in the Internet of Things. Such proposals address the design of conceptual (and software) platforms, which can be exploited to easily develop and implement complex applications that require direct interactions among objects. The major goal is… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

A Novel Framework for Social Internet of Things
A generic framework that enables interaction among the devices having diverse capabilities and heterogeneous platforms and leverages the social relationships among the participants ( devices and users) in the system for delivering the required services to the users.
M4M: A model for enabling social network based sharing in the Internet of Things
A novel model where friends in a social network can share device capabilities with their peers in an access controlled manner is proposed, and a theoretical model of such a peer-to-peer network in which devices can search for remote capabilities is developed.
Web of Social Things: Socially-Influenced Interaction Modeling
An intuitive paradigm of social interactions between these objects is argued and a comparative study of competitive vs. cooperative behavior of peers is demonstrated, revealing that the social capabilities of peers imparts a significant increase in the quality of interactions between social objects.
Social Internet of Things: Interoperability and Autonomous Computing Challenges
The basis of SIoT is presented, such as definitions, main roles, key relationships, and structures, and the major benefits and challenges ofSIoT are discussed by reviewing the recent advancements and state-of-the-art works in this emerging field.
Social monitoring and social analysis in internet of things virtual networks
This paper presents the social approach that the COSMOS project introduces in order to achieve enhanced services like discovery, recommendation and sharing between Things enriched with social properties, and discusses two main components supporting the socialization of Things: Social Monitoring and Social Analysis.
Selection of Friends Based on Strategies in SIOT
The proposed work aims at limiting the number of friendship a device can have without compromising the network navigability so that all devices can directly or indirectly communicate with all other devices in the network.
An Efficient Friendship Selection Mechanism for an Individual’s Small World in Social Internet of Things
By incorporating the properties of small-world in Social IoTs, the Smart Social Agent (SSA) is incorporated, which guarantees to search suitable friendships and the user’s requested services without human involvement.


Social-driven Internet of Connected Objects
It is argued that an efficient interaction between the physical, social and virtual worlds requires the development of a data-centric architecture based on IP-driven opportunisitc networking able to make useful data available to people when and where they really need it, augmenting their social and environmental awareness.
Opportunistic IoT: Exploring the social side of the internet of things
The bi-directional effect between human and opportunistic IoT is characterized, the innovative application areas are presented, and the challenges raised by this new computing paradigm are discussed.
Integrating RFIDs and Smart Objects into a Unified Internet of Things Architecture
A generic Internet of Things architecture trying to resolve the existing restrictions of current architectural models by integrating both RFID and smart object-based infrastructures, while also exploring a third parameter, i.e. the social potentialities of the Internet of Thing building blocks towards shaping the “Social Internet of things”.
Sharing using social networks in a composable Web of Things
  • D. GuinardMathias FischerV. Trifa
  • Computer Science
    2010 8th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PERCOM Workshops)
  • 2010
This paper proposes a platform that enables people to share their Web-enabled devices so that others can use them and illustrates how to rely on existing social networks and their open APIs to enable owners to leverage the social structures in place for sharing smart things with others.
From the internet of things to embedded intelligence
This paper extracts the “embedded” intelligence about individual, environment, and society, which can augment existing IoT systems with user, ambient, and social awareness, and attempts to enhance the IoT with intelligence and awareness under the W2T vision.
A smart web service based on the context of things
This article proposes a novel smart Web service based on the context of things, which is implemented using a REpresentational State Transfer for Things (Thing-REST) style, to tackle the two problems.
Smart-Its Friends: A Technique for Users to Easily Establish Connections between Smart Artefacts
This work proposes context proximity for selective artefact communication, using the context of artefacts for matchmaking, and suggests to empower users with simple but effective means to impose the same context on a number of artefacts.
Smart objects as building blocks for the Internet of things
The authors introduce a hierarchy of architectures with increasing levels of real-world awareness and interactivity for smart objects, describing activity-, policy-, and process-aware smart objects and demonstrating how the respective architectural abstractions support increasingly complex application.
The Web of Things: Interconnecting Devices with High Usability and Performance
It is shown that Web protocols and technologies are good candidates to design the Internet of Things, and a new way to design embedded Web servers is proposed, using a dedicated TCP/IP stack and numerous cross-layer off-line pre-calculation.
Participative marketing: extending social media marketing through the identification and interaction capabilities from the Internet of things
This work presents the participative marketing as the evolution from the social media marketing toward the active participation from the prosumers and the empowerment of the marketing with the collective intelligence.