Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness – general paralysis of the insane vs. frontotemporal dementia

@article{Orth2006FriedrichNM,
  title={Friedrich Nietzsche's mental illness – general paralysis of the insane vs. frontotemporal dementia},
  author={Michael Orth and M. R. Trimble},
  journal={Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica},
  year={2006},
  volume={114}
}
  • M. Orth, M. Trimble
  • Published 1 December 2006
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Objective:  For a long time it was thought that Nietzsche suffered from general paralysis of the insane (GPI). However, this diagnosis has been questioned recently, and alternative diagnoses have been proposed. 
Furious Frederich: Nietzsche's neurosyphilis diagnosis and new hypotheses.
TLDR
Taking into account recently described diseases, selectively collected evidence lend some support to alternative hypotheses: basal forebrain meningioma, CADASIL, MELAS and frontotemporal dementia.
The neurological illness of Friedrich
TLDR
F Friedrich Nietzsche’s disease consisted of migraine, psychiatric disturbances, cognitive decline with dementia, and stroke, and Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) accounts for all the signs and symptoms of Nietzsche's illness.
Friedrich Nietzsche and his Illness: A Neurophilosophical Approach to Introspection
TLDR
A hypothesis is formulated supporting that CADASIL presenting with symptoms of bipolar disorder and Gastaut-Geschwind syndrome would contribute to the increased insight and creativity of a philosopher whose perceptions and intuitions often bear out the results of modern neuroscience.
The neurological illness of Friedrich Nietzsche.
BACKGROUND Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900), one of the most profound and influential modern philosophers, suffered since his very childhood from severe migraine. At 44 he had a mental breakdown
Ludwig II, King of Bavaria: a royal medical history
Objective:  The case of Ludwig II, King of Bavaria, had soon become synonymous with paranoia, after he had drowned at the age of 40 together with the neuropsychiatrist Gudden.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900): A classical case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome?
  • C. Koszka
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of medical biography
  • 2009
TLDR
It is suggested that Friedrich Nietzsche suffered from mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome, which is similar to syphilis.
Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.
TLDR
Friedrich Nietzsche was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health, and any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s).
Friedrich Nietzsche: the wandering and learned neuropath under Dionisius.
TLDR
Friedrich Nietzsche was a remarkable philologist-philosopher while remaining in a condition of ill-health, and any disease seems especial regarding Nietzsche, and whichever the diagnostic hypothesis has to consider the Nietzsche's unique background to express any disease(s).
THE MADNESS OF DIONYSUS: A NEUROSURGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
TLDR
A close examination of Nietzsche's symptomatic progression and neurological signs reveals a clinical course consistent with a large, slow growing, right-sided cranial base lesion, such as a medial sphenoid wing meningioma.
Turin's breakdown: Nietzsche's pathographies and medical rationalities.
TLDR
A literature review on the medical diagnosis of Nietzsche concludes that the diagnosis he received is shown to be consistent with the nineteenth-century medical rationality and the syphilis status as a cultural fact at that time.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES
What was the Cause of Nietzsche's Dementia?
  • L. Sax
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of medical biography
  • 2003
TLDR
A careful review of the evidence suggests that the consensus that Nietzsche's dementia was caused by syphilis is probably incorrect and other hypotheses provide a more plausible fit to the evidence.
Behavior and treatment in frontotemporal dementia
TLDR
The authors review the behavioral changes seen in frontotemporal dementia and describe pharmacologic interventions for these behavioral syndromes.
The madness of Nietzsche: a misdiagnosis of the millennium?
This article represents a personal discussion about Nietzsche's mental illness, which formed part of a larger paper 'The masks of Nietzsche and eternal return of the repressed'. This was presented at
Clinical features of frontotemporal dementia due to the intronic tau 10+16 mutation
To the Editor: We read with great interest the article by Janssen et al.1 regarding clinical features seen in nine apparently separately ascertained kindreds with frontotemporal dementia and
Clinical and pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia: report of the Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick's Disease.
TLDR
The goal of this meeting was to propose guidelines that would enable clinicians to recognize patients with FTD and, if appropriate, expedite their referral to a diagnostic center.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration
TLDR
Consensus criteria for the three prototypic syndromes-frontotemporal dementia, progressive nonfluent aphasia, and semantic dementia-were developed by members of an international workshop on frontotem temporal lobar degeneration and ought to provide the foundation for research work into the neuropsychology, neuropathology, genetics, molecular biology, and epidemiology of these important clinical disorders.
Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology
edited by Allan H. Ropper and Martin A. Samuels , 1572 pp., McGraw Hill Medical, 2009, $159 Upon receiving the request to review the ninth edition of Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology , I
Localization of frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism in an Australian kindred to chromosome 17q21–22
TLDR
This analysis included the microtubule‐associated protein tau that is the major component of the paired helical filaments observed in Alzheimer's disease, and no pathogenic mutations were identified in either the tau gene or in any of the other genes analyzed.
Clinical features of frontotemporal dementia due to the intronic tau 10+16 mutation
TLDR
There was considerable variation in age at onset and duration of disease both between and within families, suggesting the presence of an effect due to other genetic or environmental factors.
Brain's diseases of the nervous system, 11th edn
TLDR
This 11th edition of Brain's clinical neurology, completely revised under the new leadership of Michael Donaghy, has contributions from 14 authors, all working in British institutions.
...
...