Frictions that activate change: dynamics of global to local non-governmental organizations for female education and empowerment in China, India, and Pakistan*

  title={Frictions that activate change: dynamics of global to local non-governmental organizations for female education and empowerment in China, India, and Pakistan*},
  author={Vilma Seeberg and Supriya Baily and Asima Mehboob Khan and Heidi Ross and Yimin. Wang and Payal P. Shah and Lei Wang},
  journal={Asia Pacific Journal of Education},
  pages={232 - 247}
Abstract This article examines how non-governmental organizations create resources and spaces for girls and women’s education and empowerment in China, India and Pakistan – in the context of global expectations and local state relations as well as cultural norms. We examine the dynamics that foster female empowerment associated with educational attainment. Analysis showed that the five NGO’s responses to enabling and constraining local needs and demands gave rise to productive friction that… Expand
2 Citations
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