Freezing cold yet diverse: dissecting a high-Arctic parasitoid community associated with Lepidoptera hosts

@article{Vrkonyi2013FreezingCY,
  title={Freezing cold yet diverse: dissecting a high-Arctic parasitoid community associated with Lepidoptera hosts},
  author={Gergely V{\'a}rkonyi and Tomas Roslin},
  journal={The Canadian Entomologist},
  year={2013},
  volume={145},
  pages={193 - 218}
}
Abstract Despite increasing worldwide interest in host–parasitoid food webs, the parasitoid communities of the high Arctic remain poorly explored. To allow analyses of global patterns, and to detect the effects of ongoing climate change, such data are urgently needed. In this paper, we describe a systematic effort to characterise the high-Arctic Hymenoptera and Diptera parasitoid community associated with Lepidoptera hosts of the Zackenberg Valley (74°30′N, 21°00′W), northeast Greenland. Here… 

Determinants of parasitoid communities of willow‐galling sawflies: habitat overrides physiology, host plant and space

The results indicate that barcode‐ and phylogeny‐based analyses of food webs that span forested vs. tundra or grassland environments could improve the understanding of vertical diversification effects in complex plant–herbivore–parasitoid networks.

Parasitoids indicate major climate‐induced shifts in arctic communities

Results suggest that in parts of the warming Arctic, Dryas is being simultaneously exposed to increased herbivory and reduced pollination, suggesting drastic and rapid consequences of climate change on multitrophic‐level community structure and on ecosystem functioning.

Variation in the species richness of parasitoid wasps (Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae and Rhyssinae) across sites on different continents

The old idea that parasitoid wasps (Ichneumonidae) show an inverse latitudinal diversity gradient has recently been challenged, but how ichneumonid species richness varies across the globe is still

Microclimate structures communities, predation and herbivory in the High Arctic

It is found that parasitism strategy and phenology explain local variation in parasitoid community structure in Arctic ecosystems, and predicts that macroclimatic changes will profoundly affect arctic communities.

Diet breadth of Gynaephora groenlandica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): is polyphagy greater in alpine versus Arctic populations?

The findings indicate the larval host plant plasticity of G. groenlandica in different environments, and are relevant to predictions regarding the fate of these populations under climate warming scenarios.

Extending understanding of latitudinal patterns in parasitoid wasp diversity

A wide variety of latitudinal patterns are demonstrated, reflecting the ecological variation between subfamilies, and host taxon and subfamily identities are better predictors of the shape of the relationship between subfamily abundance and latitude than other characteristics that have been previously hypothesised to be important.

Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

A first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic is presented, finding the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers.

Notes on the tachinids of Northeast Greenland Studying tachinids at the top of the world

Over the past seven years, we have spent several weeks every summer exploring the host-parasitoid foodwebs of Northeast Greenland. To sample host larvae for rearing, we have crawled over the ground,

Differential arthropod responses to warming are altering the structure of Arctic communities

It is found that variation in mean seasonal temperatures, winter duration and winter freeze–thaw events is correlated with taxon-specific and habitat-dependent changes in arthropod abundances, and species interactions and food web dynamics are changing in the Arctic.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 135 REFERENCES

A Poorly Known High-Latitude Parasitoid Wasp Community: Unexpected Diversity and Dramatic Changes through Time

Collection of a particularly hyperdiverse insect group – parasitoid wasps at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in the early and mid-twentieth century are used to compare the composition of the contemporary community to that present 50–70 years ago.

The effectiveness and optimal use of Malaise traps for monitoring parasitoid wasps

The results suggest that a small number of traps can contain useful information about the parasitoid community but is likely to seriously underestimate total species richness.

Large‐scale diversity patterns of parasitoid insects

This review focuses on several aspects of the biology and macroecological patterns of parasitoids that have received some attention in the past, including recent studies on island parasitoid faunas, and discusses the need for the development of future studies on Parasitoid large scale diversity patterns, and proposes new research lines.

Four ways towards tropical herbivore megadiversity.

This work presents a comprehensive scheme in which tropical herbivore megadiversity can be partitioned into the following components: more host plant species per se, more arthropod species per plant species, higher host specificity of herbivores, or higher species turnover in the tropics than in the temperate zone.

Assessing five decades of change in a high Arctic parasitoid community

The ecological impacts of climate change on Ellesmere Island is explored using historical and contemporary communities of ichneumonid wasps, finding high compositional similarity between collections, overlapping estimates of species richness, no change in the proportion of idiobiont genera in the community, and no clear pattern in body size over time.

Community structure, survival and mortality factors in arctic populations of Eupontania leaf gallers

The data do not support the hypothesis that abiotic, rather than biotic, factors would be more important in determining the abundance of populations of herbivorous insects in the harsh arctic environment.

Molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL): gut contents of adult parasitoid wasps reveal larval host

Molecular analysis of parasitoid linkages (MAPL) is proposed as a new method to document host–parasitoid associations at a faster pace and with unrivalled precision and will have immediate applications in both basic and applied biological sciences.

Host utilization by Exorista thula Wood (sp. nov.) and Chetogena gelida (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tachinidae), parasitoids of arctic Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

Studies of host-parasitoid interactions undertaken at Alexandra Fiord, Ellesmere Island, Canada, during the summers of 1994, 1995, and 1996 revealed only two species of tachinid flies parasitic on arctic Gynaephora species, and E. thula and Chetogena gelida were found to be extremely host specific.

Experimental evidence for apparent competition in a tropical forest food web

The herbivorous insects of tropical forests constitute some of the most diverse communities of living organisms. For this reason it has been difficult to discover the degree to which these

Some factors affecting the composition of tropical ichneumonid faunas

It is postulated that koinobionts have the capability of being able to locate sparse hosts, but as they host-search in flight, a prolonged daytime host- searching period in the tropics would expose them to a high level of predation pressure, so it is suggested that sparse hosts may be located more easily at night and more habitats may be climatically suitable for ichneumonid activity when they are not subject to direct sunlight.
...