Freezing as a Path to Build Complex Composites

  title={Freezing as a Path to Build Complex Composites},
  author={Sylvain Deville and Eduardo Saiz and Ravi K. Nalla and Antoni P. Tomsia},
  pages={515 - 518}
Materials that are strong, ultralightweight, and tough are in demand for a range of applications, requiring architectures and components carefully designed from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. Nacre, a structure found in many molluscan shells, and bone are frequently used as examples for how nature achieves this through hybrid organic-inorganic composites. Unfortunately, it has proven extremely difficult to transcribe nacre-like clever designs into synthetic materials, partly… 

Bioinspired large-scale aligned porous materials assembled with dual temperature gradients

A bidirectional freezing technique is reported on to successfully assemble ceramic particles into scaffolds with large-scale aligned, lamellar, porous, nacre-like structure and long-range order at the centimeter scale.

External fields for the fabrication of highly mineralized hierarchical architectures

Despite lower hardness, stiffness, and resistance to harsh environments, heavy metallic parts and soft polymer-based composites are often preferred to ceramics because they offer higher resilience.

A novel biomimetic approach to the design of high-performance ceramic–metal composites

It is demonstrated that the concept of ordered hierarchical design can be applied to create fine-scale laminated ceramic–metal (bulk) composites that are inexpensive, lightweight and display exceptional damage-tolerance properties.

Liquid crystal self-templating approach to ultrastrong and tough biomimic composites

This work presents liquid crystal self-templating methodology to make the next generation of ultrastrong and tough nacre-mimics continuously, and presents hierarchically assembled composites, which show the highest tensile strength among nacre mimics.

Thermoresponsive composite hydrogels with aligned macroporous structure by ice-templated assembly.

The fabrication method in this study including freeze-casting and cryo-polymerization can also be applied to other materials, which makes it promising for designing and developing smart and multifunctional composite hydrogels with hierar chical structures.

Tough, Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials

This work emulates nature's toughening mechanisms by combining two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethyl methacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be more than 300 times that of their constituents.

Freeze Casting for Assembling Bioinspired Structural Materials

Nature is very successful in designing strong and tough, lightweight materials. Examples include seashells, bone, teeth, fish scales, wood, bamboo, silk, and many others. A distinctive feature of all

Complex Composites Built through Freezing.

ConspectusUsing a limited selection of ordinary components and at ambient temperature, nature has managed to produce a wide range of incredibly diverse materials with astonishingly elegant and



Nanostructured artificial nacre

It is demonstrated that both structural features of nacre and bones can be reproduced by sequential deposition of polyelectrolytes and clays, and their nanoscale nature enables elucidation of molecular processes occurring under stress.

Continuous self-assembly of organic–inorganic nanocomposite coatings that mimic nacre

Nanocomposite materials are widespread in biological systems. Perhaps the most studied is the nacre of abalone shell, an orientated coating composed of alternating layers of aragonite (CaCO3) and a

Molecular mechanistic origin of the toughness of natural adhesives, fibres and composites

Natural materials are renowned for their strength and toughness,,,,. Spider dragline silk has a breakage energy per unit weight two orders of magnitude greater than high tensile steel,, and is

Rigid Biological Systems as Models for Synthetic Composites

  • G. Mayer
  • Materials Science, Biology
  • 2005
Advances that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the mechanical behavior of a number of biological materials (namely mollusk shells and sponge spicules) are discussed here.

Preparation and Compressive Strength Behavior of Porous Ceramics with β‐Ca(PO3)2 Fiber Skeletons

High-strength calcium metaphosphate fibers, which are expected to show good biocompatibility, are extracted from crystallized products of ultraphosphate glasses by aqueous leaching. Porous ceramics

The mechanical design of nacre

Mother-of-pearl (nacre) is a platelet-reinforced composite, highly filled with calcium carbonate (aragonite). The Young modulus, determined from beams of a span-to-depth ratio of no less than 15 (a

Skeleton of Euplectella sp.: Structural Hierarchy from the Nanoscale to the Macroscale

The structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp.