Freemasonry in Turkey: a by-product of Western penetration

@article{Dumont2005FreemasonryIT,
  title={Freemasonry in Turkey: a by-product of Western penetration},
  author={Paul Dumont},
  journal={European Review},
  year={2005},
  volume={13},
  pages={481 - 493}
}
  • P. Dumont
  • Published 1 July 2005
  • History
  • European Review
Towards the middle of the nineteenth century, various European Masonic obediences set up lodges throughout the Ottoman empire, many in Istanbul, while another important centre was Smyrna. Freemasons were also active in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt, Cyprus and Macedonia. Lodges were established in the main political, economic and cultural centres of the Empire. There was a strong parallelism between the Ottoman Masonic geography and that of European colonial expansion. It is easy to delineate the… 
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