Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.

@article{Valko2007FreeRA,
  title={Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease.},
  author={Mari{\'a}n Valko and Dieter Leibfritz and J{\'a}n Moncol’ and Mark T. D. Cronin and Milan Maz{\'u}r and Joshua Telser},
  journal={The international journal of biochemistry \& cell biology},
  year={2007},
  volume={39 1},
  pages={
          44-84
        }
}
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, e.g. nitric oxide, NO(*)) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. ROS and RNS are normally generated by tightly regulated enzymes, such as NO synthase (NOS) and NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms, respectively. Overproduction of ROS (arising either from mitochondrial electron-transport chain or excessive stimulation of NAD(P)H) results in oxidative stress, a deleterious process that can be an… 
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