Free food or earned food? A review and fuzzy model of contrafreeloading

@article{Inglis1997FreeFO,
  title={Free food or earned food? A review and fuzzy model of contrafreeloading},
  author={Ian R. Inglis and Bj{\"o}rn Forkman and John Lazarus},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1997},
  volume={53},
  pages={1171-1191}
}
Animals will work (e.g. lever press) for 'earned' food even though identical 'free' food can easily be obtained from a nearby dish. This phenomenon, called contrafreeloading, appears to contradict a basic tenet of most learning, motivation and optimal foraging theories; namely that animals strive to maximize the ratio of reward, or benefit, to effort, or cost. This paper reviews the factors that have been found to affect the level of contrafreeloading, to try to explain the behaviour. In… 

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